LSOF(8)                                                                                                                                LSOF(8)

NAME

       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS

       lsof  [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ]
       [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [  +|-w  ]  [  -x
       [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION

       Lsof revision 4.81 lists on its standard output file information about files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

            AIX 5.3
            FreeBSD 4.9 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 7.0 and 8.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9 and 10

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page for information on how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open  file  may  be  a  regular  file,  a directory, a block special file, a character special file, an executing text reference, a
       library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all  the  files  in  a  file
       system may be selected by path.

       Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the
       OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat
       the output operation until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

OPTIONS

       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files belonging to all active processes.

       If  any list request option is specified, other list requests must be specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing
       of UNIX socket files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also specified; or if a user list is specified with the  -u  option,  UNIX
       domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be listed unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally  list  options  that are specifically stated are ORed - i.e., specifying the -i option without an address and the -ufoo option
       produces a listing of all network files OR files belonging to processes owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1)                                                                      the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID),  specified  with
                                                                               the -u option;

       2)                                                                      the  `^'  (negated)  process  ID  (PID),  specified with the -p
                                                                               option;

       3)                                                                      the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified  with  the
                                                                               -g option;

       4)                                                                      the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5)                                                                      the  ('^')  negated  TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified
                                                                               with the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect  before  any  other  selection  criteria  are
       applied.

       The  -a  option  may  be  used to AND the selections.  For example, specifying -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket
       files that belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed; it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs  of  selection
       options  by placing it between them, even though its placement there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing of all
       selection options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, network  addresses,  process  identifiers,  user  identifiers,  zone
       names,  security  contexts  - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before the result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example,
       specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd, -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of files that belong to either login  ``fff''  OR  ``ggg''
       AND have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options  may  be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However, since
       values are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x and -z.  when you have no values  for  them  be  careful
       that  the  following  character  isn't  ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and -n options, or it might represent the n
       field identifier character following the -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a new option with a `-' character -  e.g.,  ``-F
       -n''.  If the next option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F -- name''.

       Either  the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.  Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix -
       e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the  same  as
       the  separate  options.   Be  careful  of  prefix  grouping  when one or more options in the group does take on separate meanings under
       different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use separate  options  with  appropriate
       prefixes.

       -? -h    These two equivalent options select a usage (help) output list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output when it detects
                an error in the options supplied to it, after it has displayed messages explaining each error.  (Escape the `?'  character  as
                your shell requires.)

       -a       This option causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A     This  option  is  available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows
                the lsof user to specify A as an alternate name list file where the kernel addresses of the dynamic modules  might  be  found.
                See  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how
                they affect lsof.

       -b       This option causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for information on using this option.

       -c c     This option selects the listing of files for processes executing the command that begins with the characters of  c.   Multiple
                commands may be specified, using multiple -c options.  They are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option
                selection.

                If c begins with a '^', then the following characters specify a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If c begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters between the slashes are interpreted as a  regular  expression.   Shell
                meta-characters  in the regular expression must be quoted to prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The closing slash may
                be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The simple command specification is tested first.  If that test fails, the command regular  expression  is  applied.   If  the
                simple  command  test  succeeds,  the  command  regular expression test isn't made.  This may result in ``no command found for
                regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w     This option defines the maximum number of initial characters of the name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of  the  UNIX  command
                associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The lsof default is nine.)

                Note  that  many  UNIX  dialects do not supply all command name characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains command name.  Often dialects limit the number of characters supplied in those sources.  For example, Linux 2.4.27 and
                Solaris 9 both limit command name length to 16 characters.

                If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

       -C       This  option  disables  the  reporting  of  any  path name components from the kernel's name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE
                section for more information.

       +d s     This option causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s and the files and directories it contains at  its  top
                level.   This  option does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D D option may be used to request a full-descent
                directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing of the +d option does not follow symbolic links within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor does
                it search for open files on file system mount points on subdirectories of s unless the -x or -x  f option is also specified.

                Note:  the  authority of the user of this option limits it to searching for files that the user has permission to examine with
                the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     This option specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or include in the output listing.  The file descriptors
                are specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``cwd,1,3'', ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The  list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin with '^'.  It is an inclusion list if no entry begins with '^'.
                Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long as neither member is empty, both members are numbers, and the  ending
                member  is  larger  than the starting one - e.g., ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for exclusion if they have the
                '^' prefix - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all file descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                When there are exclusion and inclusion members in the set, lsof reports them as errors and exits with a non-zero return code.

                See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in the OUTPUT section for more information on file descriptor names.

       +D D     This option causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D and all the files and directories it contains  to  its
                complete depth.

                Processing of the +D option does not follow symbolic links within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor does
                it search for open files on file system mount points on subdirectories of D unless the -x or -x  f option is also specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to searching for files that the user has permission to  examine  with
                the system stat(2) function.

                Further  note:  lsof may process this option slowly and require a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at D, calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building a list of  all  the
                files  it  finds, and searching that list for a match with every open file.  When directory D is large, these steps can take a
                long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     This option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this option is  sometimes  restricted.   See  the  DEVICE
                CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for more information on this option.

                -D  must  be  followed  by  a function letter; the function letter may optionally be followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes
                these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are sometimes restricted.  When these functions  are  restricted,  they
                will  not  appear  in  the  description  of the -D option that accompanies -h or -?  option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE
                section and the sections that follow it for more information on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only and write paths that lsof  can  use  for  the  device  cache  file,  the  names  of  any
                environment  variables whose values lsof will examine when forming the device cache file path, and the format for the personal
                device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

                When available, the b, r, and u functions may be  followed  by  the  device  cache  file's  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname  in  the  home directory of the real user ID that executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
                configured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?  options show the current  default  prefix  -  e.g.,  ``.lsof''.)   The
                suffix, hostname, is the first component of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

                When available, the b function directs lsof to build a new device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The  i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the default or specified path, but prevents it  from  creating  a  new
                device  cache  file  when  none exists or the existing one is improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without a
                path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or outdated device cache file, or creating a new one in its place.  The  r
                function is always available when it is specified without a path name argument; it may be restricted by the permissions of the
                lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device cache file at the default or specified path, if  possible,  and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f  by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be interpreted.  When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination it
                specifies that the listing of kernel file structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally a path name argument is taken to be a file system name  if  it  matches  a  mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by
                mount(8), or if it represents a block device, named in the mount output and associated with a mounted directory name.  When +f
                is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to be file system names, and lsof will complain if any are not.  This  can
                be useful, for example, when the file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens for some CD-ROM file
                systems.

                When -f is specified by itself, all path name arguments will be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example, the ``-f --  /''
                arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a `/' path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file system
                name) that might be taken as a parameter.  For example, use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The listing of information from kernel file structures, requested with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally inhibited,  and
                is not available in whole or part for some dialects - e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the prefix to f is a
                plus sign (`+'), these characters request file structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the listing of the indicated values.

                File structure addresses, use counts, flags, and node addresses may be used to detect more readily identical  files  inherited
                by  child  processes  and  identical  files in use by different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by output columns
                holding the values and listed to identify identical file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK or Perl post-filter
                script, or by a C program.

       -F f     This  option  specifies  a  character list, f, that selects the fields to be output for processing by another program, and the
                character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be output is specified with a single character in  f.   The  field
                terminator  defaults  to  NL, but may be changed to NUL (000).  See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of
                the field identification characters and the field output process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard fields are selected (except  the  raw  device  field,  security
                context and zone field for compatibility reasons) and the NL field terminator is used.

                When  the  field selection character list contains only a zero (`0'), all fields are selected (except the raw device field for
                compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field terminator character must be  set  with  explicit  entries  in  f,  as
                described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When a field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - specification
                of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list contains the single character `?',  lsof  will  display  a  help  list  of  the  field
                identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

       -g [s]   This  option  excludes  or  selects  the listing of files for the processes whose optional process group IDentification (PGID)
                numbers are in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

                Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.  However, PGID  exclusions
                are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.  When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   This  option  selects the listing of files any of whose Internet address matches the address specified in i.  If no address is
                specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the indicated IP version, IPv4  or  IPv6,  are  displayed.
                (An  IPv6  specification may be used only if the dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h
                or -?  output.)  Sequentially specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i, and vice-versa.   Specifying  -i4,
                or -i6 after -i is the same as specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple  addresses (up to a limit of 100) may be specified with multiple -i options.  (A port number or service name range is
                counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in square brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6 options may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run  lsof  and  specify
                the  -h  or  -?   (help)  option.   If  the  displayed description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
                supported.

                IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if network file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.   IPv6  host  names
                and  addresses  may not be specified if network file selection is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open IPv4 network file's
                address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected  by  '6',
                not '4'.

                At  least  one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname , hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
                leading the host specification, is always required; as is the `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname or
                hostaddr.   Specify  either service name list or port number list.  If a service name list is specified, the protocol may also
                need to be specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port numbers for the service name are different.  Use any  case  -  lower  or
                upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose entries are separated by commas and whose numeric range entries
                are separated by minus signs.  There may be no embedded spaces, and all service names must belong to the  specified  protocol.
                Since  service names may contain embedded minus signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service name; it can be a port
                number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -k k     This option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of /vmunix, /mach, etc.  This option is not available under AIX  on
                the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l       This  option  inhibits  the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It is also useful when login name lookup is working
                improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This option enables (`+') or disables (`-') the listing of file link counts, where they are  available  -  e.g.,  they  aren't
                available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When  +L is specified without a following number, all link counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no link
                counts will be listed.

                When +L is followed by a number, only files having a link count less than that number will be listed.  (No number  may  follow
                -L.)   A  specification  of  the  form  ``+L1''  will  select open files that have been unlinked.  A specification of the form
                ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on the specified file system.

                For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   This option specifies an alternate kernel memory file or activates mount table supplement processing.

                The option form -m m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The option form +m requests that a mount supplement file be written to the  standard  output  file.   All  other  options  are
                silently ignored.

                There  will be a line in the mount supplement file for each mounted file system, containing the mounted file system directory,
                followed by a single space, followed by the device number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get device numbers for file systems when it can't get them via stat(2) or lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for all supported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?   options  to
                see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables  (+)  or  disables  (-)  the  reporting of portmapper registrations for local TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports.  The default
                reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's  machine.h  header  file;  lsof  is
                distributed  with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deactivated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default and must be requested
                with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?  option will report the default mode.   Disabling  portmapper  registration  when  it  is
                already disabled or enabling it when already enabled is acceptable.

                When  portmapper  registration  reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration (if any) for local TCP, UDP or
                UDPLITE ports in square brackets immediately  following  the  port  numbers  or  service  names  -  e.g.,  ``:1234[name]''  or
                ``:name[100083]''.   The  registration information may be a name or number, depending on what the registering program supplied
                to the portmapper when it registered the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to the
                portmapper  becomes  congested  or  stopped.   Reverse the reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration reporting is
                slowing or blocking lsof.

                For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof considers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is found in the local
                part  of  its  containing kernel structure; or if it is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure and the
                local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or if it is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel  structure
                and  the  foreign  Internet  address  is  INADDR_LOOPBACK  (127.0.0.1).   This rule may make lsof ignore some foreign ports on
                machines with multiple interfaces when the foreign Internet address is on a different interface from the local one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for further discussion of portmapper registration reporting issues.

       -n       This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may  make  lsof
                run faster.  It is also useful when host name lookup is not working properly.

       -N       This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       This  option  directs  lsof  to display file offset at all times.  It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
                OFFSET.  Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consistent file offset information  from  its  kernel  data
                sources,  sometimes  just for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
                location.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever
                value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for the type of the file.

       -o o     This  option  defines  the  number  of  decimal digits (o) to be printed after the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form is
                switched to ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof to display offset at all times; specify -o (without a trailing  number)  to  do  that.   This
                option  only  specifies  the  number  of digits after ``0t'' in either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for
                example, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally 8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.   Consult  the
                description of the -o o option in the output of the -h or -?  option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       This option directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being blocked by some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in
                forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL  BLOCKS  sections  for  more  information  on  kernel
                operations that may block lsof.

                While  use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     This option excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers are
                in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

                Multiple  process  ID  numbers  are  joined  in  a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.  However, PID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       This option inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for network files.  Inhibiting the conversion may make  lsof
                run a little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                This  option  puts  lsof  in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as selected by other options, delays t seconds (default
                fifteen), then repeats the listing, delaying and listing repetitively until stopped by a condition defined by  the  prefix  to
                the option.

                If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If  the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no open files are listed - and of course when lsof is stopped with
                an interrupt or quit signal.  When repeat mode ends because no files are listed, the process exit code will  be  zero  if  any
                open files were ever listed; one, if none were ever listed.

                Lsof  marks the end of each listing: if field output is in progress (the -F, option has been specified), the default marker is
                `m'; otherwise the default marker is ``========''.  The marker is followed by a NL character.

                The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies a format for the marker line.  The <fmt> characters following `m' are interpreted  as
                a  format specification to the strftime(3) function, when both it and the localtime(3) function are available in the dialect's
                C library.  Consult the strftime(3) documentation for what may appear in its  format  specification.   Note  that  when  field
                output is requested with the -F option, <fmt> cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.  Note also that when <fmt> contains spaces
                or other characters that affect the shell's interpretation of arguments, <fmt> must be quoted appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more efficient to use this mode than to  call  lsof  repetitively  from  a
                shell script, for example.

                To  use  repeat  mode  most  efficiently,  accompany +|-r with specification of other lsof selection options, so the amount of
                kernel memory access lsof does will be kept to a minimum.  Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,  -u  -
                are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the -F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl script, or
                a C program.

       -R       This option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file size at all times.  It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to SIZE.  If
                the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                When  followed  by  a  protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon (`:') and a comma-separated protocol state name list, the
                option causes open TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their state name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^'; or  included
                if their name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

                When  an inclusion list is defined, only network files with state names in the list will be present in the lsof output.  Thus,
                specifying one state name means that only network files with that lone state name wil be listed.

                Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there may be no spaces and the colon  (`:')  separating  the  protocol
                name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If  only  TCP  and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must be
                specified, too.  If only a single protocol's files are to be listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN, use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP states except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to provide a complete  list.   Some  common  TCP  state  names  are:
                CLOSED,  IDLE,  BOUND,  LISTEN,  ESTABLISHED,  SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,  ESTABLISHED,  CLOSE_WAIT,  FIN_WAIT1,  CLOSING, LAST_ACK,
                FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common UDP state names are Unbound and Idle.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on  how  to  use  protocol  state  exclusion  and
                inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option (without a following protocol and state name list) are mutually
                exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever  value  -  size  or  offset  -  is
                appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since  some  types  of  files  don't have true sizes - sockets, FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   This option specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel functions - lstat(2),  readlink(2),  and  stat(2)  -  that
                might otherwise deadlock.  The minimum for t is two; the default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   This  option controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also reported by netstat(1), following the network addresses.
                In normal output the information appears in parentheses, each item except TCP or TPI  state  name  identified  by  a  keyword,
                followed by `=', separated from others by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items values (when available) are reported after the item name and '='.

                When  the  field  output  mode  is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with a `T' leading
                character.

                -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI information reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State may be selected for all dialects and  is  reported  by  default.
                The -h or -?  help output for the -T option will show what selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When  -T is used to select information - i.e., it is followed by one or more selection characters - the displaying of state is
                disabled by default, and it must be explicitly selected again in the characters following -T.  (In effect, then,  the  default
                is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket  options,  socket  states,  some socket values, TCP flags and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the UNIX
                dialect) in the form of the names that commonly appear after SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header files - most
                often  <sys/socket.h>,  <sys/socketvar.h>  and  <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the meaning of the flags,
                options, states and values.

                ``SO='' precedes socket options and values; ``SS='', socket states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

                If a flag or option has a value, the value  will  follow  an  '='  and  the  name  --  e.g.,  ``SO=LINGER=5'',  ``SO=QLIM=5'',
                ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details  on  what  socket  options  and  values,  socket states, and TCP flags and values may be displayed for particular UNIX
                dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't lsof report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags  and  values
                for  my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof report the partial listen queue connection count for my dialect?''  questions in the
                lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       This option specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process identifiers only and no header - e.g.,  so  that  the
                output may be piped to kill(1).  This option selects the -w option.

       -u s     This  option selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated set s -
                e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login  name  or
                user  ID  will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections; it
                is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes the listing of the files  of  the  process.   For  example,  to
                direct lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U       This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       This option selects the listing of lsof version information, including: revision number; when the lsof binary was constructed;
                who constructed the binary and where; the name of the compiler used to construct the lsof binary; the version  number  of  the
                compiler  when  readily  available;  the  compiler and loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system information,
                typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and failed to find - command names, file  names,  Internet
                addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

                When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search options, or compile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may not
                report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open  file
                containing the located search item.

                For  example,  ``lsof  -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and may not
                list any, if none have a file descriptor number of 999.  A similar situation arises when HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are
                defined at compile time and they prevent the listing of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning messages.

                The  lsof  builder  may  choose to have warning messages disabled or enabled by default.  The default warning message state is
                indicated in the output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling warning messages when they are already disabled or  enabling  them
                when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x  [fl] This  option  may  accompany  the +d and +D options to direct their processing to cross over symbolic links and|or file system
                mount points encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or directory tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without a following parameter, cross-over processing of both symbolic links and file system mount
                points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified without a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

                The optional 'f' parameter enables file system mount point cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over processing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function, its use on a busy AIX system might cause an application process
                to hang so completely that it can neither be killed nor stopped.  I have never seen  this  happen  or  had  a  report  of  its
                happening, but I think there is a remote possibility it could happen.

                By  default  use of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above lsof may need setuid-root permission to perform the actions this
                option requests.

                The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has been done, the
                -X  option  will  not  appear  in the -h or -?  help output unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default lsof
                distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default it will appear in the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to report information for all text and loader file references,  but  it
                may also avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The  readx()  function,  used  by  lsof or any other program to access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's dir_search() function to believe erroneously that part of an  in-memory  copy
                of  a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another application process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search the
                directory - e.g., by using open(2) - can cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus hanging the application process.

                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more complete
                description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR, and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof skip the reporting of information on all open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6 files.

                This  Linux  option  is  most  useful  when  the  system has an extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files, the
                processing of whose information in the /proc/net/tcp* and /proc/net/udp*  files  would  take  lsof  a  long  time,  and  whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use  this option with care and only when you are sure that the information you want lsof to display isn't associated with open
                TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This Solaris 10 and above option requests the reporting of cached paths for files that have been deleted - i.e., removed  with
                rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The  cached  path  is  followed  by  the string `` (deleted)'' to indicate that the path by which the file was opened has been
                deleted.

                Because intervening changes made to the path - i.e., renames with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in  the  cached  path,
                what lsof reports is only the path by which the file was opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be handled.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option specifies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output column.

                The  -z  option  may  be  followed  by  a  zone name, z.  That causes lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.
                Multiple -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to form a list of named zones.  Any open file of any process  in  any
                of the zones will be listed, subject to other conditions specified by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies  how  SELinux security contexts are to be handled.  This option and 'Z' field output character support are inhibited
                when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information  on  the  'Z'  field
                output character.

                Without  a  following  argument  -  e.g.,  NO  Z  -  the  option  specifies  that  security  contexts  are to be listed in the
                SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard security context name, Z.  That causes lsof to list only open files for  processes
                in  that security context.  Multiple -Z Z option and argument pairs may be specified to form a list of security contexts.  Any
                open file of any process in any of the security contexts will be listed,  subject  to  other  conditions  specified  by  other
                options and arguments.  Note that Z can be A:B:C or *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

       --       The  double  minus  sign  option is a marker that signals the end of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example, when the
                first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used when the absence of a value for the last keyed option  must  be
                signified by the presence of a minus sign in the following option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These are path names of specific files to list.  Symbolic links are resolved before use.  The first name may be separated from
                the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

                If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the device of the file system, lsof will list all the files open  on
                the file system.  To be considered a file system, the name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or match
                the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to consider
                a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

                If  name  is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regular
                file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to processes that have it open as a file or as a process-specific directory,
                such as the root or current working directory.  To request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name, use the +d s
                and +D D options.

                If a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files - e. g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof  will  list  all  the  associated
                multiplexed files on the device that are open - e.g., /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as it is
                specified and is recorded in the kernel socket structure.  (See the next paragraph for an exception to that rule  for  Linux.)
                Specifying  a  relative path - e.g., ./file - in place of the file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't work because lsof
                must match the characters you specify with what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof is able to search for  it  by  its  device  and  inode  number,
                allowing  name  to  be a relative path.  The case requires that the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
                used by the process that created the socket, and hence be stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires that lsof be able
                to  obtain  the  device  and  node  numbers of both the absolute path in /proc/net/unix and name via successful stat(2) system
                calls.  When those conditions are met, lsof will be able to search for the UNIX domain socket when  some  path  to  it  is  is
                specified  in name.  Thus, for example, if the path is /dev/log, and an lsof search is initiated when the working directory is
                /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only names you may safely specify are file systems for which  your  mount  table
                supplies alternate device numbers.  See the AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more information.

                Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

AFS

       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It  may  recognize  AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has not been tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented,
       lsof may recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported dialects when AFS kernel support  is  implemented  via  dynamic
       modules  whose addresses do not appear in the kernel's variable name list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
       files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that is needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When
       lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A  A  option  is  available in some dialect implementations of lsof for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel
       addresses may be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the  -h  or
       -?

       See  the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect
       lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name cache operations, lsof can't identify path name components  for
       AFS files.

SECURITY

       Lsof  has  three  features  that may cause security concerns.  First, its default compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files
       with it.  Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable device cache file in the home directory of the real  user  ID
       that  executes  lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may be disabled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m
       options name alternate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open  files  is  controlled  by  the  compile-time  HASSECURITY  and  HASNOSOCKSECURITY  options.   When
       HASSECURITY  is  defined,  lsof  will  allow  only the root user to list all open files.  The non-root user may list only open files of
       processes with the same user IDentification number as the real user ID number of the lsof process (the one  that  its  user  logged  on
       with).

       However,  if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone may list open socket files, provided they are selected with the
       -i option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof distribution for information  on  building  lsof  with  the  HASSECURITY  and
       HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation  and  use  of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file is controlled by the compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the
       DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details on how its path is formed.  For  security  considerations  it  is
       important  to  note  that  in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID under which lsof is executed is root, the device cache
       file will be written in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not  write  or  attempt  to
       read a device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE  is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file
       handling information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling it improves the performance  of  lsof  by  reducing  the  startup
       overhead of examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority to read
       them with access(2).  This is intended to prevent whatever special power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not
       normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT

       This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.  See  the  OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER  PROGRAMS  section  for  additional
       information on output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit characters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:
       the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space  is
       non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects - if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8 bit characters
       of a language locale.  The lsof process must be supplied a language locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value  represents  a
       known  language  locale in which the extended characters are considered printable by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the extended
       characters non-printable and prints them according to its rules for non-printable characters, stated  above.   Consult  your  dialect's
       setlocale(3) man page for the names of other environment variables that may be used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's  language locale support for a dialect also covers wide characters - e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined
       in the dialect's machine.h header file, and when a suitable language locale has been defined in the  appropriate  environment  variable
       for  the  lsof  process.   Wide  characters  are  printable under those conditions if iswprint(3) reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE,
       HASWIDECHAR and a suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3)  reports  wide  characters  that  aren't  printable,  lsof
       considers the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according to its rules for non-printable characters, stated
       above.

       Consult the answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the  lsof  FAQ  (The  FAQ  section  gives  its  location.)  for  more
       information.

       Lsof  dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guaranteeing that each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that
       each column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the process.  If a non-zero  w  value  is
                  specified to the +c w option, the column contains the first w characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the
                  process up to the limit of characters supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the +c w command or the
                  lsof FAQ for more information.  The FAQ section gives its location.)

                  If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that length.

                  If  a  zero  w value is specified to the +c w option, the column contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX command
                  associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in its structures are displayed in field output when the  command  name
                  descriptor  (`c') is specified.  See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER COMMANDS section for information on selecting field output and the
                  associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is the SELinux security context.  This column must be selected with the -Z option.  Note that the  -Z  option  is  inhibited
                  when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.

       PPID       is the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.  It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID       is  the  process  group IDentification number associated with the process.  It is only displayed when the -g option has been
                  specified.

       USER       is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the  process  belongs,  usually  the  same  as  reported  by  ps(1).
                  However,  on  Linux  USER is the user ID number or login that owns the directory in /proc where lsof finds information about
                  the process.  Usually that is the same value reported by ps(1), but may differ when the process has  changed  its  effective
                  user ID.  (See the -l option description for information on when a user ID number or login name is displayed.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The mode character is followed by one of these lock characters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for parsing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is the type of the node associated with the file - e.g., GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or  ``NOFD''  for  a  Linux  /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or the four type number octets if the corresponding name isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been specified to +f;

       FCT        contains the file reference count from the kernel file structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains the contents of the f_flag[s] member of the kernel file  structure
                  and  the  kernel's  per-process  open  file  flags  (if  available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal; `g', as
                  short-hand names; two lists may be displayed with entries separated by commas, the lists separated by a semicolon (`;'); the
                  first list may contain short-hand names for f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list  of  names  was  derived  from  F*  #define's  in  dialect  header files <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>, <sys/fcntl.c>,
                  <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see the lsof.h header file for a list  showing  the  correspondence  between  the  above
                  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand names for kernel per-process open file flags from this table:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identifier for the file node (usually the kernel vnode or inode address,
                  but also occasionally a concatenation of device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains the device numbers, separated by commas, for a character special, block special, regular, directory or NFS file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under Tru64 UNIX;

                  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file (The kernel reference address may be used for FIFO's, for example.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

                  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.  A value is displayed in this column only if  it  is  available.   Lsof
                  displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On  some  UNIX  dialects  lsof  can't  obtain  accurate  or consistent file offset information from its kernel data sources,
                  sometimes just for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket files.)  In other cases, files don't  have  true  sizes  -  e.g.,
                  sockets,  FIFOs,  pipes  -  so lsof displays for their sizes the content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descriptors
                  (e.g., socket buffer size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its  location.)   for
                  more information.

                  The  file  size  is displayed in decimal; the offset is normally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it contains 8
                  digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x'' if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o  o  option  description
                  for information on when 8 might default to some other value.)

                  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when the column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its title
                  is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file offset (or nothing if no offset is available)  and  labels  the
                  column OFFSET.  The offset always begins with ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

                  The  lsof  user  can  control  the  switch  from  ``0t''  to  ``0x'' with the -o o option.  Consult its description for more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file size (or nothing if no size is available) and labels the column
                  SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.

                  For  files  that  don't  have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about the current size or position of the file if it is available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which the file resides;

                  or the name of a file specified in the names option (after any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network file; the local host name or IP number is followed by a colon (':'),
                  the  port, ``->'', and the two-part remote address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers or names, depending on the +|-M,
                  -n,  and  -P  options;  colon-separated  IPv6  numbers  are  enclosed  in  square  brackets;  IPv4   INADDR_ANY   and   IPv6
                  IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and zero port numbers are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a UDP destination address may
                  be followed by the amount of time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the destination; TCP,  UDP  and  UDPLITE  remote
                  addresses  may  be  followed  by  TCP/TPI information in parentheses - state (e.g., ``(ESTABLISHED)'', ``(Unbound)''), queue
                  sizes, and window sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what netstat(1) reports; see the -T option  description
                  or  the  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on state, queue size, and window
                  size;

                  or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly including a stream clone device name, a file system  object's  path
                  name, local and foreign kernel addresses, socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or  a  stream  character  device name, followed by ``->'' and the stream name or a list of stream module names, separated by
                  ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache  for
                  selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination address;

                  or ``COMMON:'', followed by the vnode device information structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or  the  address  family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed by fourteen comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw socket
                  address;

                  or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual connection number (if any), followed  by  the  remote  address  (if
                  any);

                  or  ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically terminal files that have been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl
                  and closed by daemons;

                  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones of the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of the
                  file;

                  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX domain socket, created by the socketpair(3N) network function;

                  or  ``no  PCB''  for  socket  files  that  do  not  have  a  protocol block associated with them, optionally followed by ``,
                  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has been disabled, or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been disabled
                  (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or  the  local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file in the form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses by
                  the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the connection state;

                  or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets, followed by  a  colon  (':')
                  and  the local path name when available, followed by ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address in hexadecimal
                  when available.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file to be  attached  to  another  with  fattach(3C),  lsof  will  add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''  to  the NAME column.  <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address
       of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof  may  add  two  parenthetical  notes  to  the  NAME  column  for open Solaris 10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of
       questionable accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option has been specified and lsof detects  the  open  file's  path  name  has  been
       deleted.  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS

       Lsof  can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character
       is a compromise between the information it finds in the kernel and the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof only reports the status of the first lock it encounters.  If it
       is  a  byte  level  lock,  then the lock character will be reported in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the upper case
       equivalent reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on local files.  When a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g.,  NFS)  file, the remote server host usually records the lock state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and
       in all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
       gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS

       When  the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable for processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script,
       or a C program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL  (000)
       if  the  0  (zero)  field identifier character is specified.)  The data of the field follows immediately after the field identification
       character and extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and file sets.  A process set begins with a  field  whose  identifier  is  `p'  (for
       process  IDentifier  (PID)).   It extends to the beginning of the next PID field or the beginning of the first file set of the process,
       whichever comes first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify the  command,  the  process  group  IDentification  (PGID)
       number, and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

       A  file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the file's access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of  the  next
       file or process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero) field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set
       with a NL (012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields may be declared optionally in  the  field  identifier  character
       list  that  follows  the  -F  option.   When  a  field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID,
       selected with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is  not  selected,
       it  may  be  difficult to identify file sets.  To help you avoid this difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of
       all fields with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields with NUL terminators).  For compatibility  reasons
       neither -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof will produce.  The single character listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            i    file's inode number
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            g    process group ID
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can  get  on-line help information on these characters and their descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?'
       character as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID (`p'), command name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields  with
       an NL field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process or file set, only those that are available.  Some fields are mutually exclusive: file
       device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode number and protocol name; file name and stream  identification;  file
       size and offset.  One or the other member of these mutually exclusive sets will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally  lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero) field identifier character may be specified to change the field
       terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier to process with xargs (1), for example,  or  with  programs  whose
       quoting mechanisms may not easily cope with the range of characters in the field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof
       ends each process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are included in the lsof distribution.  The first  is  a  C  header
       file,  lsof_fields.h,  that  contains  symbols  for  the  field  identification  characters,  indexes  for storing them in a table, and
       explanation strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output, written in awk, Perl 4,  and  Perl  5.   They're  located  in  the
       scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The  third  aid  is  the  C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test suite is written in C and uses field output to validate the
       correct operation of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library  uses  the  first
       aid, the lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS

       Lsof  can  be  blocked  by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the
       kernel, for example, when the hosts where mounted NFS file systems reside become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers and child processes, but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage
       to break a block, it will report the break with an error message.  The messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option, and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t
       is two seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow system responsiveness can cause short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and
       perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When  lsof  has  to  break  a  block  during  its  access of mounted file system information, it normally continues, although with less
       information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child processes when using the kernel functions  that  might  block  by
       specifying  the  -O  option.   While  this  will  allow  lsof  to start up with less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the kernel
       situations that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS

       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option usually requires that your system supply alternate device numbers in place of the  device  numbers  that  lsof
       would normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.  See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on
       alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and
       inode  numbers  of  files  listed with names in the lsof options, and the -b option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover, since
       lsof only has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its ability to locate files on file systems depends  completely
       on  the  availability  and  accuracy of the alternates.  If no alternates are available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to
       locate files on the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains from your system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't  be
       able  to  resolve  the  links.   This  is because the -b option causes lsof to avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve
       symbolic links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when it needs to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs
       it  to  avoid.   You can suppress these messages by specifying the -w option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers
       reported in the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS

       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get information about a mounted file  system  via  the  lstat(2)  and
       stat(2)  kernel functions, or because you specified the -b option, lsof can obtain some of the information it needs - the device number
       and possibly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When that  is  possible,  lsof  will  report  the  device  number  it
       obtained.  (You can suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You  can  assist  this process if your mount table is supported with an /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by
       adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not have one in their options strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file  -
       i.e., some mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are read-only and can't be modified.

       You  may  also  be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the
       output of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file system's device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output
       of  the  lstat(2)  and  stat(2)  functions for the appropriate values for your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6
       /etc/mnttab for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table file, especially for file systems that are mounted from  remote
       NFS  servers.   When  a  remote  server crashes and you want to identify its users by running lsof on one of its clients, lsof probably
       won't be able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file system.  If it can obtain  the  file  system's  device
       number from the mount table, it will be able to display the files open on the crashed NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file for the mount table may still provide an alternative device number
       in their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how  to  obtain
       the alternative device number for these dialects and uses it when its attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to
       see if it reports any alternate device numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE

       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel facilities (e.g., the ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under  Tru64
       UNIX)  on  some  dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS, and extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS file
       system path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof can't report all components in a path, it  reports  in  the  NAME
       column  the file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another space, and the name components it has located, separated
       by the `/' character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified - the extent to which it can report path name components  for  the
       same  file  may  vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name
       cache and replace them with others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.
       This  can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as a key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing
       file system is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a
       reference to the wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If  you  want  to  know  why  lsof  can't  report  path  name components for some dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
       location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE

       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2) functions can be time consuming.  What's more,  the  information
       that lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently,  lsof  normally  maintains  an ASCII text file of cached /dev (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux
       lsof where it's not needed.)  The local system administrator who builds lsof can control the way the device cache file path is  formed,
       selecting from these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult  the  output  of  the  -h,  -D? , or -?  help options for the current state of device cache support.  The help output lists the
       default read-mode device cache file path that is in effect for the current invocation of  lsof.   The  -D?   option  output  lists  the
       read-only  and  write  device  cache  file paths, the names of any applicable environment variables, and the personal device cache path
       format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has been accidentally or maliciously modified by  integrity  checks,  including  the
       computation  and  verification  of  a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) sum on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something
       wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file and create a new copy, but only to a  path  that
       the process can legitimately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache file may not be the same as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device cache file, it may choose a different path for  writing  it  from  the
       path from which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device cache file.  (It's always available when specified without a path
       name argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may need to be recreated.  Since lsof compares the mtime of the  device
       cache  file  with the mtime and ctime of the /dev (or /devices) directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that
       case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

       Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the real UID of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to
       0600, this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS

       Two  permissions  of  the lsof executable affect its ability to access device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system
       administrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root,  while  its
       real (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect when the effective group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof
       process is set to one that can access kernel memory devices - e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the permission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When  it
       does that, lsof can allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects
       run setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [67].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [67].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permissions given to the executable don't apply  to  the  device  cache
       file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION

       The  -D  option  provides limited means for specifying the device cache file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write
       device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to request that the cache  file  be  built  in  a  specific  location
       (b[path]);  read  but  not  rebuilt  (r[path]);  or  read  and  rebuilt (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are restricted under some
       conditions.  They are restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified with the r  function  is  always  read-only,
       even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See
       the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of implementations that  normally  don't  surrender  their
       setgid permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to read device information from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache
       file at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device cache file, but not update it.  When a path argument accompanies  -Dr,  it
       names  the  device  cache file path.  The r function is always available when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is
       not running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name argument may accompany the r function.

       When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it  finds
       the  contents  of  the file incorrect or outdated, it will read information from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of
       the device cache file, but only to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE

       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents of the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable.  It avoids this choice if  the
       lsof process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A  further  restriction  applies  to  a  device cache file path taken from the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable: lsof will not write a
       device cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid permission.   (See  the  LSOF  PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT
       DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       The  local  system  administrator  can  disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable or change its name when building lsof.
       Consult the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH

       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device cache file when building lsof.   That  file  will  generally  be
       constructed  by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.
       If defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your local installation by examining the lsof help option  output  -
       i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof  will  never  write  to  the  system-wide  device cache file path by default.  It must be explicitly named with a -D function in a
       root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been written, the  procedure  must  change  its  permission  modes  to  0644  (owner-read  and
       owner-write, group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)

       The  default  device cache file path of the lsof distribution is one recorded in the home directory of the real UID that executes lsof.
       Added to the home directory is a second path component of the form .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the default.  If a system-wide device cache file path  was  defined
       when  lsof was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the only time
       lsof uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the executing host, as returned by  gethostname(2).   The  base  name  is
       defined  to be the characters preceding the first `.'  in the gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no
       `.'.

       The device cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and writable by the user ID alone  -  i.e.,  its  modes  are  0600.   Each
       distinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes
       device cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a device cache file that lsof  will  attempt  to  read,  and  will
       attempt to write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect or outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the personal device cache file.  The conversions used in the format
       specification are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH

       If this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof is built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be
       used to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  variable  contents  are inserted in the path at the place marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p''
       conversion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the dialect's machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the  home  directory
       in the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus,   for   example,   if   LSOFPERSDCPATH   contains   ``LSOF'',   the   home   directory   is  ``/Homes/abe'',  the  host  name  is
       ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file path if the lsof process doesn't surrender setgid  permission.   (See  the
       LSOF  PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid
       permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device  cache  file  paths  by  using  the  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment
       variable  to name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its setgid permission, you will have to allow lsof to create device cache files at the
       standard personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option when  lsof  is  built;  change  the  name  of  the  environment  variable  from
       LSOFPERSDCPATH  to  something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the personal path component in another place; or exclude the
       personal path component entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option for the environment variable's name and the  HASPERSDC  format
       specification.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof  returns  a  one  (1)  if any error was detected, including the failure to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or
       files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate the search
       items it failed to list.

       It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When  lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdirectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it
       issues a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue warning messages about  inaccessible  files  in  /dev  (or  /devices)  is
       indicated in its help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning  message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was
       compiled by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the output from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after lsof has created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES

       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the 00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is 1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 network files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To find processes with open files on the NFS file system named /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your  mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To  obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file descriptor, file device number, and file inode number for each file
       of each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes running a command that is exactly four characters long and has  an  'o'  or  'O'  in
       character three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that has a run of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that contains the current time, use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS

       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character (following the file descriptor) is derived from a test  of  the  first
       lock structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise
       it is limited to searching for files to which its user or its set-GID group (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping) depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store  the
       destination address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof  can't  always  represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers
       that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the  same
       as  the  ones  that  it  reports  for  the  device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory
       numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and Tru64 UNIX dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 -  e.g.,
       FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some  /proc file items - device number, inode number, and file size - are unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc
       file system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All entries for files other than the current working directory,  the
       root directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number
       for a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00 locks because of insufficient access to kernel data or  errors  in
       the kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for details.

       The  AIX  SMT  file  type  is  a  fabrication.   It's  made  up  for  file  structures  whose  type  (15)  isn't  defined  in  the  AIX
       /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file structures is to run X clients  with  the  DISPLAY  variable  set  to
       ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof, because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT

       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines  a  language  locale.   See setlocale(3) for the names of other variables that can be used in place of LANG -
                         e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines the path to a device cache file.  See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLE  section  for  more
                         information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines  the  middle component of a modified personal device cache file path.  See the MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE
                         PATH section for more information.

FAQ

       Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES

       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's  device  cache  file  (The  suffix,  hostname,  is  the  first  component  of  the  host's  name  returned  by
                         gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS

       Lsof  was  written  by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue University.  Many others have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in
       the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION

       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the  lsof  distribution
       in the pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given
       a list of some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors  file.   Use  mirrors
       with caution - not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof  executables  are available on lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that you build
       your own from the sources.  If you feel you must use a pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions  that  appear  in  the  README
       files of the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More  information  on the lsof distribution can be found in its README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO

       Not all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C), ff(1), fstat(8),  fuser(1),  gethostname(2),  isprint(3),  kill(1),  localtime(3),  lstat(2),
       modload(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2), setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).

                                                                 Revision-4.81                                                         LSOF(8)
 

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