IP(8)                                                                Linux                                                               IP(8)

NAME

       ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels

SYNOPSIS

       ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }

       OBJECT := { link | addr | addrlabel | route | rule | neigh | tunnel | maddr | mroute }

       OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] | -s[tatistics] | -r[esolve] | -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | ipx | dnet | link } | -o[neline] }

       ip link add link DEVICE [ name ] NAME
               [ txqueuelen PACKETS ]
               [ address LLADDR ] [ broadcast LLADDR ]
               [ mtu MTU ]
               type TYPE [ ARGS ]

       TYPE := [ vlan | veth | vcan | dummy | ifb | macvlan | can | bridge]"

       ip link delete DEVICE type TYPE [ ARGS ]

       ip link set { DEVICE | group GROUP } { up | down | arp { on | off } |
               promisc { on | off } |
               allmulticast { on | off } |
               dynamic { on | off } |
               multicast { on | off } |
               txqueuelen PACKETS |
               name NEWNAME |
               address LLADDR | broadcast LLADDR |
               mtu MTU |
               netns PID |
               netns NETNSNAME |
               alias NAME |
               vf NUM [ mac LLADDR ] [ vlan VLANID [ qos VLAN-QOS ] ] [ rate TXRATE ] |
               master DEVICE
               nomaster  }

       ip link show [ DEVICE | group GROUP ]

       ip addr { add | del } IFADDR dev STRING

       ip addr { show | flush } [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] [ to PREFIX ] [ FLAG-LIST ] [ label PATTERN ]

       IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ] [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]

       SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

       FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

       FLAG := [ permanent | dynamic | secondary | primary | tentative | deprecated | dadfailed | temporary ]

       ip addrlabel { add | del } prefix PREFIX [ dev DEV ] [ label NUMBER ]

       ip addrlabel { list | flush }

       ip netns { list }

       ip netns { add | delete } NETNSNAME

       ip netns exec NETNSNAME command ...

       ip route { list | flush } SELECTOR

       ip route save SELECTOR

       ip route restore

       ip route get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING  ] [ oif STRING ] [ tos TOS ]

       ip route { add | del | change | append | replace } ROUTE

       SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ exact PREFIX ] [ table TABLE_ID ] [ proto RTPROTO ] [ type TYPE ] [ scope SCOPE ]

       ROUTE := NODE_SPEC [ INFO_SPEC ]

       NODE_SPEC := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ table TABLE_ID ] [ proto RTPROTO ] [ scope SCOPE ] [ metric METRIC ]

       INFO_SPEC := NH OPTIONS FLAGS [ nexthop NH ] ...

       NH := [ via ADDRESS ] [ dev STRING ] [ weight NUMBER ] NHFLAGS

       OPTIONS := FLAGS [ mtu NUMBER ] [ advmss NUMBER ] [ rtt TIME ] [ rttvar TIME ] [ window NUMBER ] [ cwnd NUMBER ] [ ssthresh REALM ] [
               realms REALM ] [ rto_min TIME ] [ initcwnd NUMBER ] [ initrwnd NUMBER ]

       TYPE := [ unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | throw | unreachable | prohibit | blackhole | nat ]

       TABLE_ID := [ local| main | default | all | NUMBER ]

       SCOPE := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

       NHFLAGS := [ onlink | pervasive ]

       RTPROTO := [ kernel | boot | static | NUMBER ]

       ip rule  [ list | add | del | flush ] SELECTOR ACTION

       SELECTOR := [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ] [ fwmark FWMARK[/MASK] ] [ iif STRING ] [ oif STRING ] [ pref NUMBER ]

       ACTION := [ table TABLE_ID ] [ nat ADDRESS ] [ prohibit | reject | unreachable ] [ realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]

       TABLE_ID := [ local | main | default | NUMBER ]

       ip neigh { add | del | change | replace } { ADDR [ lladdr LLADDR ] [ nud { permanent | noarp | stale | reachable } ] | proxy ADDR } [
               dev DEV ]

       ip neigh { show | flush } [ to PREFIX ] [ dev DEV ] [ nud STATE ]

       ip ntable change name NAME [ dev DEV ] PARMS

       PARMS := { thresh1 VAL | thresh2 VAL | thresh3 VAL | gc_int MSEC | base_reachable MSEC | retrans MSEC | gc_stale MSEC  | delay_probe
               MSEC | queue LEN  | app_probs VAL | ucast_probes VAL | mcast_probes VAL  | anycast_delay MSEC | proxy_delay MSEC | proxy_queue
               LEN  | locktime MSEC }

       ip ntable show [ dev DEV ] [ name NAME ]

       ip tunnel { add | change | del | show | prl } [ NAME ]
               [ mode MODE ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ]
               [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ] ]
               [ encaplimit ELIM ] [ ttl TTL ]
               [ tos TOS ] [ flowlabel FLOWLABEL ]
               [ prl-default ADDR ] [ prl-nodefault ADDR ] [ prl-delete ADDR ]
               [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ] [ dscp inherit ]

       MODE :=  { ipip | gre | sit | isatap | ip6ip6 | ipip6 | any }

       ADDR := { IP_ADDRESS | any }

       TOS := { NUMBER | inherit }

       ELIM := { none | 0..255 }

       TTL := { 1..255 | inherit }

       KEY := { DOTTED_QUAD | NUMBER }

       TIME := NUMBER[s|ms]

       ip maddr [ add | del ] MULTIADDR dev STRING

       ip maddr show [ dev STRING ]

       ip mroute show [ PREFIX ] [ from PREFIX ] [ iif DEVICE ]

       ip monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]

       ip xfrm XFRM-OBJECT { COMMAND | help }

       XFRM-OBJECT := state | policy | monitor

       ip xfrm state { add | update } ID [ ALGO-LIST ] [ mode MODE ] [ mark MARK [ mask MASK ] ] [ reqid REQID ] [ seq SEQ ] [ replay-window
               SIZE ] [ replay-seq SEQ ] [ replay-oseq SEQ ] [ flag FLAG-LIST ] [ sel SELECTOR ] [ LIMIT-LIST ] [ encap ENCAP ] [ coa
               ADDR[/PLEN] ] [ ctx CTX ]

       ip xfrm state allocspi ID [ mode MODE ] [ mark MARK [ mask MASK ] ] [ reqid REQID ] [ seq SEQ ] [ min SPI max SPI ]

       ip xfrm state { delete | get } ID [ mark MARK [ mask MASK ] ]

       ip xfrm state { deleteall | list } [ ID ] [ mode MODE ] [ reqid REQID ] [ flag FLAG-LIST ]

       ip xfrm state flush [ proto XFRM-PROTO ]

       ip xfrm state count

       ID := [ src ADDR ] [ dst ADDR ] [ proto XFRM-PROTO ] [ spi SPI ]

       XFRM-PROTO := esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao

       ALGO-LIST := [ ALGO-LIST ] ALGO

       ALGO := { enc | auth | comp } ALGO-NAME ALGO-KEY |
               aead ALGO-NAME ALGO-KEY ALGO-ICV-LEN |
               auth-trunc ALGO-NAME ALGO-KEY ALGO-TRUNC-LEN

       MODE := transport | tunnel | ro | in_trigger | beet

       FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

       FLAG := noecn | decap-dscp | nopmtudisc | wildrecv | icmp | af-unspec | align4

       SELECTOR := [ src ADDR[/PLEN] ] [ dst ADDR[/PLEN] ] [ dev DEV ]
               [ UPSPEC ]

       UPSPEC := proto { PROTO |
               { tcp | udp | sctp | dccp } [ sport PORT ] [ dport PORT ] |
               { icmp | ipv6-icmp | mobility-header } [ type NUMBER ] [ code NUMBER ] |
               gre [ key { DOTTED-QUAD | NUMBER } ] }

       LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] limit LIMIT

       LIMIT := { time-soft | time-hard | time-use-soft | time-use-hard } SECONDS |
               { byte-soft | byte-hard } SIZE |
               { packet-soft | packet-hard } COUNT

       ENCAP := { espinudp | espinudp-nonike } SPORT DPORT OADDR

       ip xfrm policy { add | update } SELECTOR dir DIR [ ctx CTX ] [ mark MARK [ mask MASK ] ] [ index INDEX ] [ ptype PTYPE ] [ action
               ACTION ] [ priority PRIORITY ] [ flag FLAG-LIST ] [ LIMIT-LIST ] [ TMPL-LIST ]

       ip xfrm policy { delete | get } { SELECTOR | index INDEX } dir DIR [ ctx CTX ] [ mark MARK [ mask MASK ] ] [ ptype PTYPE ]

       ip xfrm policy { deleteall | list } [ SELECTOR ] [ dir DIR ] [ index INDEX ] [ ptype PTYPE ] [ action ACTION ] [ priority PRIORITY ]

       ip xfrm policy flush [ ptype PTYPE ]

       ip xfrm policy count

       SELECTOR := [ src ADDR[/PLEN] ] [ dst ADDR[/PLEN] ] [ dev DEV ] [ UPSPEC ]

       UPSPEC := proto { PROTO |
               { tcp | udp | sctp | dccp } [ sport PORT ] [ dport PORT ] |
               { icmp | ipv6-icmp | mobility-header } [ type NUMBER ] [ code NUMBER ] |
               gre [ key { DOTTED-QUAD | NUMBER } ] }

       DIR := in | out | fwd

       PTYPE := main | sub

       ACTION := allow | block

       FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

       FLAG := localok | icmp

       LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] limit LIMIT

       LIMIT := { time-soft | time-hard | time-use-soft | time-use-hard } SECONDS |
               { byte-soft | byte-hard } SIZE |
               { packet-soft | packet-hard } COUNT

       TMPL-LIST := [ TMPL-LIST ] tmpl TMPL

       TMPL := ID [ mode MODE ] [ reqid REQID ] [ level LEVEL ]

       ID := [ src ADDR ] [ dst ADDR ] [ proto XFRM-PROTO ] [ spi SPI ]

       XFRM-PROTO := esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao

       MODE := transport | tunnel | ro | in_trigger | beet

       LEVEL := required | use

       ip xfrm monitor [ all | LISTofXFRM-OBJECTS ]

OPTIONS

       -V, -Version
              print the version of the ip utility and exit.

       -s, -stats, -statistics
              output more information.  If the option appears twice or more, the amount of information increases.  As a rule, the  information
              is statistics or some time values.

       -l, -loops
              Specify  maximum  number  of  loops the 'ip addr flush' logic will attempt before giving up.  The default is 10.  Zero (0) means
              loop until all addresses are removed.

       -f, -family
              followed by protocol family identifier: inet, inet6 or link ,enforce the protocol family to use.  If the option is not  present,
              the  protocol family is guessed from other arguments.  If the rest of the command line does not give enough information to guess
              the family, ip falls back to the default one, usually inet or any.   link  is  a  special  family  identifier  meaning  that  no
              networking protocol is involved.

       -4     shortcut for -family inet.

       -6     shortcut for -family inet6.

       -0     shortcut for -family link.

       -o, -oneline
              output  each  record  on  a  single line, replacing line feeds with the '\ยด> character. This is convenient when you want to count
              records with wc(1)
               or to grep(1) the output.

       -r, -resolve
              use the system's name resolver to print DNS names instead of host addresses.

IP - COMMAND SYNTAX

   OBJECT
       link   - network device.

       address
              - protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device.

       addrlabel
              - label configuration for protocol address selection.

       neighbour
              - ARP or NDISC cache entry.

       route  - routing table entry.

       rule   - rule in routing policy database.

       maddress
              - multicast address.

       mroute - multicast routing cache entry.

       tunnel - tunnel over IP.

       The names of all objects may be written in full or abbreviated form, f.e.  address is abbreviated as addr or just a.

   COMMAND
       Specifies the action to perform on the object.  The set of possible actions depends on the object type.  As a rule, it is  possible  to
       add,  delete  and show (or list ) objects, but some objects do not allow all of these operations or have some additional commands.  The
       help command is available for all objects.  It prints out a list of available commands and argument syntax conventions.

       If no command is given, some default command is assumed.  Usually it is list or, if the objects of this class cannot be listed, help.

ip link - network device configuration

       link is a network device and the corresponding commands display and change the state of devices.

   ip link add - add virtual link
       link DEVICE
              specifies the physical device to act operate on.

              NAME specifies the name of the new virtual device.

              TYPE specifies the type of the new device.

              Link types:

                      vlan - 802.1q tagged virtual LAN interface

                      veth - Virtual ethernet interface

                      vcan - Virtual Local CAN interface

                      dummy - Dummy network interface

                      ifb - Intermediate Functional Block device

                      macvlan - virtual interface base on link layer address (MAC)

                      can - Controller Area Network interface

                      bridge - Ethernet Bridge device

   ip link delete - delete virtual link
       DEVICE specifies the virtual  device to act operate on.  TYPE specifies the type of the device.

       dev DEVICE
              specifies the physical device to act operate on.

   ip link set - change device attributes
       dev DEVICE
              DEVICE specifies network device to operate on. When configuring SR-IOV Virtual Fuction (VF) devices, this keyword should specify
              the associated Physical Function (PF) device.

       group GROUP
              GROUP  has  a  dual  role:  If  both group and dev are present, then move the device to the specified group.  If only a group is
              specified, then the command operates on all devices in that group.

       up and down
              change the state of the device to UP or DOWN.

       arp on or arp off
              change the NOARP flag on the device.

       multicast on or multicast off
              change the MULTICAST flag on the device.

       dynamic on or dynamic off
              change the DYNAMIC flag on the device.

       name NAME
              change the name of the device.  This operation is not recommended if the  device  is  running  or  has  some  addresses  already
              configured.

       txqueuelen NUMBER

       txqlen NUMBER
              change the transmit queue length of the device.

       mtu NUMBER
              change the MTU of the device.

       address LLADDRESS
              change the station address of the interface.

       broadcast LLADDRESS

       brd LLADDRESS

       peer LLADDRESS
              change the link layer broadcast address or the peer address when the interface is POINTOPOINT.

       netns PID
              move the device to the network namespace associated with the process PID.

       netns NETNSNAME
              move the device to the network namespace associated with name NETNSNAME.

       alias NAME
              give the device a symbolic name for easy reference.

       group GROUP
              specify the group the device belongs to.  The available groups are listed in file /etc/iproute2/group.

       vf NUM specify a Virtual Function device to be configured. The associated PF device must be specified using the dev parameter.

                      mac LLADDRESS - change the station address for the specified VF. The vf parameter must be specified.

                      vlan VLANID - change the assigned VLAN for the specified VF. When specified, all traffic sent from the VF will be tagged
                      with the specified VLAN ID. Incoming traffic will be filtered for the specified VLAN ID, and will  have  all  VLAN  tags
                      stripped  before  being  passed  to  the  VF.  Setting  this  parameter to 0 disables VLAN tagging and filtering. The vf
                      parameter must be specified.

                      qos VLAN-QOS - assign VLAN QOS (priority) bits for the VLAN tag. When specified, all VLAN tags  transmitted  by  the  VF
                      will  include  the  specified priority bits in the VLAN tag. If not specified, the value is assumed to be 0. Both the vf
                      and vlan parameters must be specified. Setting both vlan and qos as 0 disables VLAN tagging and filtering for the VF.

                      rate TXRATE - change the allowed transmit bandwidth, in Mbps, for  the  specified  VF.   Setting  this  parameter  to  0
                      disables rate limiting. The vf parameter must be specified.

       master DEVICE
              set master device of the device (enslave device).

       nomaster
              unset master device of the device (release device).

       Warning:  If  multiple  parameter  changes are requested, ip aborts immediately after any of the changes have failed.  This is the only
       case when ip can move the system to an unpredictable state.  The solution is to avoid changing several parameters with one ip link  set
       call.

   ip link show - display device attributes
       dev NAME (default)
              NAME specifies the network device to show.  If this argument is omitted all devices in the default group are listed.

       group GROUP
              GROUP specifies what group of devices to show.

       up     only display running interfaces.

ip address - protocol address management.

       The  address  is  a  protocol (IP or IPv6) address attached to a network device.  Each device must have at least one address to use the
       corresponding protocol.  It is possible to have  several  different  addresses  attached  to  one  device.   These  addresses  are  not
       discriminated, so that the term alias is not quite appropriate for them and we do not use it in this document.

       The ip addr command displays addresses and their properties, adds new addresses and deletes old ones.

   ip address add - add new protocol address.
       dev NAME
              the name of the device to add the address to.

       local ADDRESS (default)
              the  address  of  the interface. The format of the address depends on the protocol. It is a dotted quad for IP and a sequence of
              hexadecimal halfwords separated by colons for IPv6.  The ADDRESS may be followed by a slash and a decimal number  which  encodes
              the network prefix length.

       peer ADDRESS
              the  address  of  the  remote  endpoint for pointopoint interfaces.  Again, the ADDRESS may be followed by a slash and a decimal
              number, encoding the network prefix length.  If a peer address is specified, the local address cannot have a prefix length.  The
              network prefix is associated with the peer rather than with the local address.

       broadcast ADDRESS
              the broadcast address on the interface.

              It  is possible to use the special symbols '+' and '-' instead of the broadcast address.  In this case, the broadcast address is
              derived by setting/resetting the host bits of the interface prefix.

       label NAME
              Each address may be tagged with a label string.  In order to preserve compatibility with Linux-2.0 net aliases, this string must
              coincide with the name of the device or must be prefixed with the device name followed by colon.

       scope SCOPE_VALUE
              the scope of the area where this address is valid.  The available scopes are listed in file /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.  Predefined
              scope values are:

                      global - the address is globally valid.

                      site - (IPv6 only) the address is site local, i.e. it is valid inside this site.

                      link - the address is link local, i.e. it is valid only on this device.

                      host - the address is valid only inside this host.

   ip address delete - delete protocol address
       Arguments: coincide with the arguments of ip addr add.  The device name is  a  required  argument.   The  rest  are  optional.   If  no
       arguments are given, the first address is deleted.

   ip address show - look at protocol addresses
       dev NAME (default)
              name of device.

       scope SCOPE_VAL
              only list addresses with this scope.

       to PREFIX
              only list addresses matching this prefix.

       label PATTERN
              only list addresses with labels matching the PATTERN.  PATTERN is a usual shell style pattern.

       dynamic and permanent
              (IPv6 only) only list addresses installed due to stateless address configuration or only list permanent (not dynamic) addresses.

       tentative
              (IPv6 only) only list addresses which have not yet passed duplicate address detection.

       deprecated
              (IPv6 only) only list deprecated addresses.

       dadfailed
              (IPv6 only) only list addresses which have failed duplicate address detection.

       temporary
              (IPv6 only) only list temporary addresses.

       primary and secondary
              only list primary (or secondary) addresses.

   ip address flush - flush protocol addresses
       This command flushes the protocol addresses selected by some criteria.

       This command has the same arguments as show.  The difference is that it does not run when no arguments are given.

       Warning:  This  command (and other flush commands described below) is pretty dangerous.  If you make a mistake, it will not forgive it,
       but will cruelly purge all the addresses.

       With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number of deleted addresses and the number of  rounds  made
       to  flush  the address list.  If this option is given twice, ip addr flush also dumps all the deleted addresses in the format described
       in the previous subsection.

ip addrlabel - protocol address label management.

       IPv6 address label is used for address selection described in RFC 3484.  Precedence is managed by userspace, and only label  is  stored
       in kernel.

   ip addrlabel add - add an address label
       the command adds an address label entry to the kernel.

       prefix PREFIX

       dev DEV
              the outgoing interface.

       label NUMBER
              the label for the prefix.  0xffffffff is reserved.

   ip addrlabel del - delete an address label
       the  command deletes an address label entry in the kernel.  Arguments: coincide with the arguments of ip addrlabel add but label is not
       required.

   ip addrlabel list - list address labels
       the command show contents of address labels.

   ip addrlabel flush - flush address labels
       the command flushes the contents of address labels and it does not restore default settings.

ip neighbour - neighbour/arp tables management.

       neighbour objects establish bindings between protocol addresses and link layer addresses for hosts sharing the  same  link.   Neighbour
       entries are organized into tables. The IPv4 neighbour table is known by another name - the ARP table.

       The corresponding commands display neighbour bindings and their properties, add new neighbour entries and delete old ones.

   ip neighbour add - add a new neighbour entry
   ip neighbour change - change an existing entry
   ip neighbour replace - add a new entry or change an existing one
       These commands create new neighbour records or update existing ones.

       to ADDRESS (default)
              the protocol address of the neighbour. It is either an IPv4 or IPv6 address.

       dev NAME
              the interface to which this neighbour is attached.

       lladdr LLADDRESS
              the link layer address of the neighbour.  LLADDRESS can also be null.

       nud NUD_STATE
              the  state  of the neighbour entry.  nud is an abbreviation for 'Neighbour Unreachability Detection'.  The state can take one of
              the following values:

                      permanent - the neighbour entry is valid forever and can be only be removed administratively.

                      noarp - the neighbour entry is valid. No attempts to validate this entry will be made but it can  be  removed  when  its
                      lifetime expires.

                      reachable - the neighbour entry is valid until the reachability timeout expires.

                      stale  - the neighbour entry is valid but suspicious.  This option to ip neigh does not change the neighbour state if it
                      was valid and the address is not changed by this command.

   ip neighbour delete - delete a neighbour entry
       This command invalidates a neighbour entry.

       The arguments are the same as with ip neigh add, except that lladdr and nud are ignored.

       Warning: Attempts to delete or  manually  change  a  noarp  entry  created  by  the  kernel  may  result  in  unpredictable  behaviour.
       Particularly, the kernel may try to resolve this address even on a NOARP interface or if the address is multicast or broadcast.

   ip neighbour show - list neighbour entries
       This commands displays neighbour tables.

       to ADDRESS (default)
              the prefix selecting the neighbours to list.

       dev NAME
              only list the neighbours attached to this device.

       unused only list neighbours which are not currently in use.

       nud NUD_STATE
              only list neighbour entries in this state.  NUD_STATE takes values listed below or the special value all which means all states.
              This option may occur more than once.  If this option is absent, ip lists all entries except for none and noarp.

   ip neighbour flush - flush neighbour entries
       This command flushes neighbour tables, selecting entries to flush by some criteria.

       This command has the same arguments as show.  The differences are that it does not run when  no  arguments  are  given,  and  that  the
       default neighbour states to be flushed do not include permanent and noarp.

       With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose.  It prints out the number of deleted neighbours and the number of rounds made
       to flush the neighbour table.  If the option is given twice, ip neigh flush also dumps all the deleted neighbours.

ip ntable - neighbour table configuration

       Display and change the parameters for the neighbour tables.

   ip ntable show - list the ip neighbour tables
       This commands displays neighbour table parameters and statistics.

       dev DEV
              only list the table attached to this device.

       name NAME
              only lists the table with the given name.

   ip ntable change - modify table parameter
       This command allows modifying table parameters such as timers and queue lengths.

       name NAME
              the name of the table to modify.

       dev DEV
              the name of the device to modify the table values.

ip route - routing table management

       Manipulate route entries in the kernel routing tables keep information about paths to other networked nodes.

       Route types:

               unicast - the route entry describes real paths to the destinations covered by the route prefix.

               unreachable - these destinations are unreachable.  Packets are discarded and the ICMP message host  unreachable  is  generated.
               The local senders get an EHOSTUNREACH error.

               blackhole - these destinations are unreachable.  Packets are discarded silently.  The local senders get an EINVAL error.

               prohibit  -  these  destinations  are  unreachable.   Packets are discarded and the ICMP message communication administratively
               prohibited is generated.  The local senders get an EACCES error.

               local - the destinations are assigned to this host.  The packets are looped back and delivered locally.

               broadcast - the destinations are broadcast addresses.  The packets are sent as link broadcasts.

               throw - a special control route used together with policy rules. If  such  a  route  is  selected,  lookup  in  this  table  is
               terminated  pretending  that  no  route  was found.  Without policy routing it is equivalent to the absence of the route in the
               routing table.  The packets are dropped and the  ICMP  message  net  unreachable  is  generated.   The  local  senders  get  an
               ENETUNREACH error.

               nat - a special NAT route.  Destinations covered by the prefix are considered to be dummy (or external) addresses which require
               translation to real (or internal) ones before forwarding.  The addresses to  translate  to  are  selected  with  the  attribute
               Warning: Route NAT is no longer supported in Linux 2.6.

               via.

               anycast  -  not  implemented the destinations are anycast addresses assigned to this host.  They are mainly equivalent to local
               with one difference: such addresses are invalid when used as the source address of any packet.

               multicast - a special type used for multicast routing.  It is not present in normal routing tables.

       Route tables: Linux-2.x can pack routes into several routing tables identified by a number in the range from 1 to 2^31 or by name  from
       the  file  /etc/iproute2/rt_tables By default all normal routes are inserted into the main table (ID 254) and the kernel only uses this
       table when calculating routes.  Values (0, 253, 254, and 255) are reserved for built-in use.

       Actually, one other table always exists, which is invisible but even more important.  It is the  local  table  (ID  255).   This  table
       consists of routes for local and broadcast addresses.  The kernel maintains this table automatically and the administrator usually need
       not modify it or even look at it.

       The multiple routing tables enter the game when policy routing is used.

   ip route add - add new route
   ip route change - change route
   ip route replace - change or add new one
       to TYPE PREFIX (default)
              the destination prefix of the route.  If TYPE is omitted, ip assumes type unicast.  Other  values  of  TYPE  are  listed  above.
              PREFIX  is  an IP or IPv6 address optionally followed by a slash and the prefix length.  If the length of the prefix is missing,
              ip assumes a full-length host route.  There is also a special PREFIX default - which is equivalent to IP 0/0 or to IPv6 ::/0.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              the Type Of Service (TOS) key.  This key has no associated mask and the longest match is understood as: First, compare  the  TOS
              of  the route and of the packet.  If they are not equal, then the packet may still match a route with a zero TOS.  TOS is either
              an 8 bit hexadecimal number or an identifier from /etc/iproute2/rt_dsfield.

       metric NUMBER

       preference NUMBER
              the preference value of the route.  NUMBER is an arbitrary 32bit number.

       table TABLEID
              the table to add this route to.  TABLEID may be a number or a string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.  If  this  parameter
              is  omitted,  ip  assumes  the  main table, with the exception of local , broadcast and nat routes, which are put into the local
              table by default.

       dev NAME
              the output device name.

       via ADDRESS
              the address of the nexthop router.  Actually, the sense of this field depends on the route type.  For normal unicast  routes  it
              is either the true next hop router or, if it is a direct route installed in BSD compatibility mode, it can be a local address of
              the interface.  For NAT routes it is the first address of the block of translated IP destinations.

       src ADDRESS
              the source address to prefer when sending to the destinations covered by the route prefix.

       realm REALMID
              the realm to which this route is assigned.  REALMID may be a number or a string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_realms.

       mtu MTU

       mtu lock MTU
              the MTU along the path to the destination.  If the modifier lock is not used, the MTU may be updated by the kernel due  to  Path
              MTU  Discovery.   If the modifier lock is used, no path MTU discovery will be tried, all packets will be sent without the DF bit
              in IPv4 case or fragmented to MTU for IPv6.

       window NUMBER
              the maximal window for TCP to advertise to these destinations, measured in bytes.  It limits maximal data bursts  that  our  TCP
              peers are allowed to send to us.

       rtt TIME
              the  initial RTT ('Round Trip Time') estimate. If no suffix is specified the units are raw values passed directly to the routing
              code to maintain compatibility with previous releases.  Otherwise if a suffix of s, sec or secs is used to specify  seconds  and
              ms, msec or msecs to specify milliseconds.

       rttvar TIME (2.3.15+ only)
              the initial RTT variance estimate. Values are specified as with rtt above.

       rto_min TIME (2.6.23+ only)
              the minimum TCP Retransmission TimeOut to use when communicating with this destination.  Values are specified as with rtt above.

       ssthresh NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              an estimate for the initial slow start threshold.

       cwnd NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              the clamp for congestion window.  It is ignored if the lock flag is not used.

       initcwnd NUMBER (2.5.70+ only)
              the  initial congestion window size for connections to this destination.  Actual window size is this value multiplied by the MSS
              (``Maximal Segment Size'') for same connection. The default is zero, meaning to use the values specified in RFC2414.

       initrwnd NUMBER (2.6.33+ only)
              the initial receive window size for connections to this destination.  Actual window size is this value multiplied by the MSS  of
              the connection.  The default value is zero, meaning to use Slow Start value.

       advmss NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              the  MSS  ('Maximal  Segment  Size')  to advertise to these destinations when establishing TCP connections.  If it is not given,
              Linux uses a default value calculated from the first hop device MTU.  (If the path to  these  destination  is  asymmetric,  this
              guess may be wrong.)

       reordering NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              Maximal  reordering  on  the  path  to this destination.  If it is not given, Linux uses the value selected with sysctl variable
              net/ipv4/tcp_reordering.

       nexthop NEXTHOP
              the nexthop of a multipath route.  NEXTHOP is a complex value with its own syntax similar to the top level argument lists:

                      via ADDRESS - is the nexthop router.

                      dev NAME - is the output device.

                      weight NUMBER - is a weight for this element of a multipath route reflecting its relative bandwidth or quality.

       scope SCOPE_VAL
              the scope of the  destinations  covered  by  the  route  prefix.   SCOPE_VAL  may  be  a  number  or  a  string  from  the  file
              /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.  If this parameter is omitted, ip assumes scope global for all gatewayed unicast routes, scope link for
              direct unicast and broadcast routes and scope host for local routes.

       protocol RTPROTO
              the routing protocol identifier of this route.  RTPROTO may be a number or a string from the file  /etc/iproute2/rt_protos.   If
              the  routing  protocol  ID  is  not  given, ip assumes protocol boot (i.e. it assumes the route was added by someone who doesn't
              understand what they are doing).  Several protocol values have a fixed interpretation.  Namely:

                      redirect - the route was installed due to an ICMP redirect.

                      kernel - the route was installed by the kernel during autoconfiguration.

                      boot - the route was installed during the bootup sequence.  If a routing daemon starts, it will purge all of them.

                      static - the route was installed by the administrator to override dynamic routing. Routing daemon will respect them and,
                      probably, even advertise them to its peers.

                      ra - the route was installed by Router Discovery protocol.

              The rest of the values are not reserved and the administrator is free to assign (or not to assign) protocol tags.

       onlink pretend that the nexthop is directly attached to this link, even if it does not match any interface prefix.

   ip route delete - delete route
       ip route del has the same arguments as ip route add, but their semantics are a bit different.

       Key  values  (to,  tos,  preference  and  table) select the route to delete.  If optional attributes are present, ip verifies that they
       coincide with the attributes of the route to delete.  If no route with the given key and attributes was found, ip route del fails.

   ip route show - list routes
       the command displays the contents of the routing tables or the route(s) selected by some criteria.

       to SELECTOR (default)
              only select routes from the given range of destinations.  SELECTOR consists of an optional modifier (root, match or exact) and a
              prefix.   root  PREFIX  selects  routes with prefixes not shorter than PREFIX.  F.e.  root 0/0 selects the entire routing table.
              match PREFIX selects routes with prefixes not longer than PREFIX.  F.e.  match 10.0/16 selects 10.0/16, 10/8  and  0/0,  but  it
              does  not  select 10.1/16 and 10.0.0/24.  And exact PREFIX (or just PREFIX) selects routes with this exact prefix. If neither of
              these options are present, ip assumes root 0/0 i.e. it lists the entire table.

       tos TOS
              dsfield TOS only select routes with the given TOS.

       table TABLEID
              show the routes from this table(s).  The default setting is to show tablemain.  TABLEID may either be the ID of a real table  or
              one of the special values:

                      all - list all of the tables.

                      cache - dump the routing cache.

       cloned

       cached list  cloned  routes  i.e.  routes  which  were dynamically forked from other routes because some route attribute (f.e. MTU) was
              updated.  Actually, it is equivalent to table cache.

       from SELECTOR
              the same syntax as for to, but it binds the source address range rather than destinations.  Note that the from option only works
              with cloned routes.

       protocol RTPROTO
              only list routes of this protocol.

       scope SCOPE_VAL
              only list routes with this scope.

       type TYPE
              only list routes of this type.

       dev NAME
              only list routes going via this device.

       via PREFIX
              only list routes going via the nexthop routers selected by PREFIX.

       src PREFIX
              only list routes with preferred source addresses selected by PREFIX.

       realm REALMID

       realms FROMREALM/TOREALM
              only list routes with these realms.

   ip route flush - flush routing tables
       this command flushes routes selected by some criteria.

       The  arguments have the same syntax and semantics as the arguments of ip route show, but routing tables are not listed but purged.  The
       only difference is the default action: show dumps all the IP main routing table but flush prints the helper page.

       With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number of deleted routes and the number of rounds  made  to
       flush  the routing table. If the option is given twice, ip route flush also dumps all the deleted routes in the format described in the
       previous subsection.

   ip route get - get a single route
       this command gets a single route to a destination and prints its contents exactly as the kernel sees it.

       to ADDRESS (default)
              the destination address.

       from ADDRESS
              the source address.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              the Type Of Service.

       iif NAME
              the device from which this packet is expected to arrive.

       oif NAME
              force the output device on which this packet will be routed.

       connected
              if no source address (option from) was given, relookup the route with the source set to the preferred address received from  the
              first lookup.  If policy routing is used, it may be a different route.

       Note  that this operation is not equivalent to ip route show.  show shows existing routes.  get resolves them and creates new clones if
       necessary.  Essentially, get is equivalent to sending a packet along this path.  If the iif argument is not given, the kernel creates a
       route to output packets towards the requested destination.  This is equivalent to pinging the destination with a subsequent ip route ls
       cache, however, no packets are actually sent.  With the iif argument, the kernel pretends that a packet arrived from this interface and
       searches for a path to forward the packet.

   ip route save - save routing table information to stdout
       this command behaves like ip route show except that the output is raw data suitable for passing to ip route restore.

   ip route restore - restore routing table information from stdin
       this  command  expects  to read a data stream as returned from ip route save.  It will attempt to restore the routing table information
       exactly as it was at the time of the save, so any translation of information in the stream (such as device indexes) must be done first.
       Any existing routes are left unchanged.  Any routes specified in the data stream that already exist in the table will be ignored.

ip rule - routing policy database management

       Rules in the routing policy database control the route selection algorithm.

       Classic routing algorithms used in the Internet make routing decisions based only on the destination address of packets (and in theory,
       but not in practice, on the TOS field).

       In some circumstances we want to route packets differently depending not only on  destination  addresses,  but  also  on  other  packet
       fields: source address, IP protocol, transport protocol ports or even packet payload.  This task is called 'policy routing'.

       To  solve  this task, the conventional destination based routing table, ordered according to the longest match rule, is replaced with a
       'routing policy database' (or RPDB), which selects routes by executing some set of rules.

       Each policy routing rule consists of a selector and an action predicate.  The RPDB is scanned in the order of increasing priority.  The
       selector of each rule is applied to {source address, destination address, incoming interface, tos, fwmark} and, if the selector matches
       the packet, the action is performed.  The action predicate may return with success.  In this case, it  will  either  give  a  route  or
       failure indication and the RPDB lookup is terminated. Otherwise, the RPDB program continues on the next rule.

       Semantically, natural action is to select the nexthop and the output device.

       At startup time the kernel configures the default RPDB consisting of three rules:

       1.     Priority:  0, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup routing table local (ID 255).  The local table is a special routing table
              containing high priority control routes for local and broadcast addresses.

              Rule 0 is special. It cannot be deleted or overridden.

       2.     Priority: 32766, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup routing table main (ID 254).  The main table  is  the  normal  routing
              table containing all non-policy routes. This rule may be deleted and/or overridden with other ones by the administrator.

       3.     Priority:  32767,  Selector:  match anything, Action: lookup routing table default (ID 253).  The default table is empty.  It is
              reserved for some post-processing if no previous default rules selected the packet.  This rule may also be deleted.

       Each RPDB entry has additional attributes.  F.e. each rule has a pointer to some routing table.  NAT and  masquerading  rules  have  an
       attribute  to  select  new  IP  address to translate/masquerade.  Besides that, rules have some optional attributes, which routes have,
       namely realms.  These values do not override those contained in the routing tables.  They are only used if the route did not select any
       attributes.

       The RPDB may contain rules of the following types:

               unicast - the rule prescribes to return the route found in the routing table referenced by the rule.

               blackhole - the rule prescribes to silently drop the packet.

               unreachable - the rule prescribes to generate a 'Network is unreachable' error.

               prohibit - the rule prescribes to generate 'Communication is administratively prohibited' error.

               nat - the rule prescribes to translate the source address of the IP packet into some other value.

   ip rule add - insert a new rule
   ip rule delete - delete a rule
       type TYPE (default)
              the type of this rule.  The list of valid types was given in the previous subsection.

       from PREFIX
              select the source prefix to match.

       to PREFIX
              select the destination prefix to match.

       iif NAME
              select  the  incoming  device to match.  If the interface is loopback, the rule only matches packets originating from this host.
              This means that you may create separate routing tables for forwarded and local packets and, hence, completely segregate them.

       oif NAME
              select the outgoing device to match.  The outgoing interface is only available for packets originating from local  sockets  that
              are bound to a device.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              select the TOS value to match.

       fwmark MARK
              select the fwmark value to match.

       priority PREFERENCE
              the priority of this rule.  Each rule should have an explicitly set unique priority value.  The options preference and order are
              synonyms with priority.

       table TABLEID
              the routing table identifier to lookup if the rule selector matches.  It is also possible to use lookup instead of table.

       realms FROM/TO
              Realms to select if the rule matched and the routing table lookup succeeded.  Realm TO is only used if the route did not  select
              any realm.

       nat ADDRESS
              The  base  of the IP address block to translate (for source addresses).  The ADDRESS may be either the start of the block of NAT
              addresses (selected by NAT routes) or a local host address (or even zero).  In the last case the router does not  translate  the
              packets, but masquerades them to this address.  Using map-to instead of nat means the same thing.

              Warning:  Changes  to  the  RPDB  made  with these commands do not become active immediately.  It is assumed that after a script
              finishes a batch of updates, it flushes the routing cache with ip route flush cache.

   ip rule flush - also dumps all the deleted rules.
       This command has no arguments.

   ip rule show - list rules
       This command has no arguments.  The options list or lst are synonyms with show.

ip maddress - multicast addresses management

       maddress objects are multicast addresses.

   ip maddress show - list multicast addresses
       dev NAME (default)
              the device name.

   ip maddress add - add a multicast address
   ip maddress delete - delete a multicast address
       these commands attach/detach a static link layer multicast address to listen on the interface.  Note that  it  is  impossible  to  join
       protocol multicast groups statically.  This command only manages link layer addresses.

       address LLADDRESS (default)
              the link layer multicast address.

       dev NAME
              the device to join/leave this multicast address.

ip mroute - multicast routing cache management

       mroute objects are multicast routing cache entries created by a user level mrouting daemon (f.e.  pimd or mrouted ).

       Due  to  the  limitations  of  the  current  interface  to  the  multicast  routing  engine,  it is impossible to change mroute objects
       administratively, so we may only display them.  This limitation will be removed in the future.

   ip mroute show - list mroute cache entries
       to PREFIX (default)
              the prefix selecting the destination multicast addresses to list.

       iif NAME
              the interface on which multicast packets are received.

       from PREFIX
              the prefix selecting the IP source addresses of the multicast route.

ip tunnel - tunnel configuration

       tunnel objects are tunnels, encapsulating packets in IP packets and then sending them over the IP infrastructure.  The encapulating (or
       outer) address family is specified by the -f option.  The default is IPv4.

   ip tunnel add - add a new tunnel
   ip tunnel change - change an existing tunnel
   ip tunnel delete - destroy a tunnel
       name NAME (default)
              select the tunnel device name.

       mode MODE
              set the tunnel mode. Available modes depend on the encapsulating address family.
              Modes for IPv4 encapsulation available: ipip, sit, isatap and gre.
              Modes for IPv6 encapsulation available: ip6ip6, ipip6 and any.

       remote ADDRESS
              set the remote endpoint of the tunnel.

       local ADDRESS
              set the fixed local address for tunneled packets.  It must be an address on another interface of this host.

       ttl N  set a fixed TTL N on tunneled packets.  N is a number in the range 1--255. 0 is a special value meaning that packets inherit the
              TTL value.  The default value for IPv4 tunnels is: inherit.  The default value for IPv6 tunnels is: 64.

       tos T

       dsfield T

       tclass T
              set a fixed TOS (or traffic class in IPv6) T on tunneled packets.  The default value is: inherit.

       dev NAME
              bind the tunnel to the device NAME so that tunneled packets will only be routed via this device and will not be able  to  escape
              to another device when the route to endpoint changes.

       nopmtudisc
              disable  Path  MTU Discovery on this tunnel.  It is enabled by default.  Note that a fixed ttl is incompatible with this option:
              tunnelling with a fixed ttl always makes pmtu discovery.

       key K

       ikey K

       okey K ( only GRE tunnels ) use keyed GRE with key K. K is either a number or an IP address-like dotted quad.  The key  parameter  sets
              the key to use in both directions.  The ikey and okey parameters set different keys for input and output.

       csum, icsum, ocsum
              ( only GRE tunnels ) generate/require checksums for tunneled packets.  The ocsum flag calculates checksums for outgoing packets.
              The icsum flag requires that all input packets have the correct checksum.  The csum flag is equivalent to the combination  icsum
              ocsum.

       seq, iseq, oseq
              (  only GRE tunnels ) serialize packets.  The oseq flag enables sequencing of outgoing packets.  The iseq flag requires that all
              input packets are serialized.  The seq flag is equivalent to the combination iseq oseq.  It isn't work. Don't use it.

       dscp inherit
              ( only IPv6 tunnels ) Inherit DS field between inner and outer header.

       encaplim ELIM
              ( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed encapsulation limit.  Default is 4.

       flowlabel FLOWLABEL
              ( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed flowlabel.

   ip tunnel prl - potential router list (ISATAP only)
       dev NAME
              mandatory device name.

       prl-default ADDR

       prl-nodefault ADDR

       prl-delete ADDR
              Add or delete ADDR as a potential router or default router.

   ip tunnel show - list tunnels
       This command has no arguments.

ip monitor and rtmon - state monitoring

       The ip utility can monitor the state of devices, addresses and routes continuously.  This  option  has  a  slightly  different  format.
       Namely, the monitor command is the first in the command line and then the object list follows:

       ip monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]

       OBJECT-LIST  is  the  list  of  object  types that we want to monitor.  It may contain link, address and route.  If no file argument is
       given, ip opens RTNETLINK, listens on it and dumps state changes in the format described in previous sections.

       If a file name is given, it does not listen on RTNETLINK, but opens the file containing RTNETLINK messages saved in binary  format  and
       dumps  them.   Such  a  history  file  can  be  generated with the rtmon utility.  This utility has a command line syntax similar to ip
       monitor.  Ideally, rtmon should be started before the first network configuration command is issued. F.e. if you insert:

               rtmon file /var/log/rtmon.log

       in a startup script, you will be able to view the full history later.

       Certainly, it is possible to start rtmon at any time.  It prepends the history  with  the  state  snapshot  dumped  at  the  moment  of
       starting.

ip netns - process network namespace management

       A network namespace is logically another copy of the network stack, with it's own routes, firewall rules, and network devices.

       By  convention  a  named  network namespace is an object at /var/run/netns/NAME that can be opened.  The file descriptor resulting from
       opening /var/run/netns/NAME refers to the specified network namespace.  Holding that file descriptor open keeps the  network  namespace
       alive.  The file descriptor can be used with the setns(2) system call to change the network namespace associated with a task.

       The  convention  for  network  namespace aware applications is to look for global network configuration files first in /etc/netns/NAME/
       then in /etc/.  For example, if you want a different version of /etc/resolv.conf for a network namespace used to isolate your  vpn  you
       would name it /etc/netns/myvpn/resolv.conf.

       ip netns exec automates handling of this configuration, file convention for network namespace unaware applications, by creating a mount
       namespace and bind mounting all of the per network namespace configure files into their traditional location in /etc.

   ip netns list - show all of the named network namespaces
   ip netns add NAME - create a new named network namespace
   ip netns delete NAME - delete the name of a network namespace
   ip netns exec NAME cmd ... - Run cmd in the named network namespace

ip xfrm - transform configuration

       xfrm is an IP framework for transforming packets (such as encrypting their payloads). This framework is used  to  implement  the  IPsec
       protocol  suite  (with the state object operating on the Security Association Database, and the policy object operating on the Security
       Policy Database). It is also used for the IP Payload Compression Protocol and features of Mobile IPv6.

   ip xfrm state add - add new state into xfrm
   ip xfrm state update - update existing state in xfrm
   ip xfrm state allocspi - allocate an SPI value
   ip xfrm state delete - delete existing state in xfrm
   ip xfrm state get - get existing state in xfrm
   ip xfrm state deleteall - delete all existing state in xfrm
   ip xfrm state list - print out the list of existing state in xfrm
   ip xfrm state flush - flush all state in xfrm
   ip xfrm state count - count all existing state in xfrm
       ID     is specified by a source address, destination address, transform protocol XFRM-PROTO, and/or Security Parameter Index SPI.

       XFRM-PROTO
              specifies a transform protocol: IPsec Encapsulating Security  Payload  (esp),  IPsec  Authentication  Header  (ah),  IP  Payload
              Compression (comp), Mobile IPv6 Type 2 Routing Header (route2), or Mobile IPv6 Home Address Option (hao).

       ALGO-LIST
              specifies  one  or  more algorithms ALGO to use. Algorithm types include encryption (enc), authentication (auth), authentication
              with a specified truncation length (auth-trunc), authenticated encryption with associated data (aead), and  compression  (comp).
              For each algorithm used, the algorithm type, the algorithm name ALGO-NAME, and the key ALGO-KEY must be specified. For aead, the
              Integrity Check Value length ALGO-ICV-LEN must additionally be specified.  For auth-trunc, the signature truncation length ALGO-
              TRUNC-LEN must additionally be specified.

       MODE   specifies a mode of operation: IPsec transport mode (transport), IPsec tunnel mode (tunnel), Mobile IPv6 route optimization mode
              (ro), Mobile IPv6 inbound trigger mode (in_trigger), or IPsec ESP Bound End-to-End Tunnel Mode (beet).

       FLAG-LIST
              contains one or more of the following optional flags: noecn, decap-dscp, nopmtudisc, wildrecv, icmp, af-unspec, or align4.

       SELECTOR
              selects the traffic that will be controlled by the policy, based on the source address, the  destination  address,  the  network
              device, and/or UPSPEC.

       UPSPEC selects  traffic  by  protocol.  For  the  tcp,  udp, sctp, or dccp protocols, the source and destination port can optionally be
              specified.  For the icmp, ipv6-icmp, or mobility-header protocols, the type and code numbers can optionally be  specified.   For
              the  gre  protocol,  the key can optionally be specified as a dotted-quad or number.  Other protocols can be selected by name or
              number PROTO.

       LIMIT-LIST
              sets limits in seconds, bytes, or numbers of packets.

       ENCAP  encapsulates packets with protocol espinudp or espinudp-nonike, using source port SPORT, destination port DPORT ,  and  original
              address OADDR.

   ip xfrm policy add - add a new policy
   ip xfrm policy update - update an existing policy
   ip xfrm policy delete - delete an existing policy
   ip xfrm policy get - get an existing policy
   ip xfrm policy deleteall - delete all existing xfrm policies
   ip xfrm policy list - print out the list of xfrm policies
   ip xfrm policy flush - flush policies
   ip xfrm policy count - count existing policies
       SELECTOR
              selects  the  traffic  that  will be controlled by the policy, based on the source address, the destination address, the network
              device, and/or UPSPEC.

       UPSPEC selects traffic by protocol. For the tcp, udp, sctp, or dccp protocols, the  source  and  destination  port  can  optionally  be
              specified.   For  the icmp, ipv6-icmp, or mobility-header protocols, the type and code numbers can optionally be specified.  For
              the gre protocol, the key can optionally be specified as a dotted-quad or number.  Other protocols can be selected  by  name  or
              number PROTO.

       DIR    selects the policy direction as in, out, or fwd.

       CTX    sets the security context.

       PTYPE  can be main (default) or sub.

       ACTION can be allow (default) or block.

       PRIORITY
              is a number that defaults to zero.

       FLAG-LIST
              contains one or both of the following optional flags: local or icmp.

       LIMIT-LIST
              sets limits in seconds, bytes, or numbers of packets.

       TMPL-LIST
              is a template list specified using ID, MODE, REQID, and/or LEVEL.

       ID     is specified by a source address, destination address, transform protocol XFRM-PROTO, and/or Security Parameter Index SPI.

       XFRM-PROTO
              specifies  a  transform  protocol:  IPsec  Encapsulating  Security  Payload  (esp), IPsec Authentication Header (ah), IP Payload
              Compression (comp), Mobile IPv6 Type 2 Routing Header (route2), or Mobile IPv6 Home Address Option (hao).

       MODE   specifies a mode of operation: IPsec transport mode (transport), IPsec tunnel mode (tunnel), Mobile IPv6 route optimization mode
              (ro), Mobile IPv6 inbound trigger mode (in_trigger), or IPsec ESP Bound End-to-End Tunnel Mode (beet).

       LEVEL  can be required (default) or use.

   ip xfrm monitor - state monitoring for xfrm objects
       The xfrm objects to monitor can be optionally specified.

HISTORY

       ip was written by Alexey N. Kuznetsov and added in Linux 2.2.

SEE ALSO

       tc(8)
       IP Command reference ip-cref.ps
       IP tunnels ip-cref.ps
       User documentation at http://lartc.org/, but please direct bugreports and patches to: <netdev@vger.kernel.org>

AUTHOR

       Original Manpage  by Michail Litvak <mci@owl.openwall.com>
 

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