CHROOT(2)                                                  Linux Programmer's Manual                                                 CHROOT(2)


       chroot - change root directory


       #include <unistd.h>

       int chroot(const char *path);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

           Since glibc 2.2.2:
               _BSD_SOURCE ||
                   (_XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||
                       _XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED) &&
                   !(_POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600)
           Before glibc 2.2.2: none


       chroot()  changes  the  root  directory  of  the  calling process to that specified in path.  This directory will be used for pathnames
       beginning with /.  The root directory is inherited by all children of the calling process.

       Only a privileged process (Linux: one with the CAP_SYS_CHROOT capability) may call chroot().

       This call changes an ingredient in the pathname resolution process and does nothing else.

       This call does not change the current working directory, so that after the call '.'  can  be  outside  the  tree  rooted  at  '/'.   In
       particular, the superuser can escape from a "chroot jail" by doing:

           mkdir foo; chroot foo; cd ..

       This call does not close open file descriptors, and such file descriptors may allow access to files outside the chroot tree.


       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.


       Depending on the file system, other errors can be returned.  The more general errors are listed below:

       EACCES Search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.  (See also path_resolution(7).)

       EFAULT path points outside your accessible address space.

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path.

              path is too long.

       ENOENT The file does not exist.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

              A component of path is not a directory.

       EPERM  The caller has insufficient privilege.


       SVr4, 4.4BSD, SUSv2 (marked LEGACY).  This function is not part of POSIX.1-2001.


       A child process created via fork(2) inherits its parent's root directory.  The root directory is left unchanged by execve(2).

       FreeBSD has a stronger jail() system call.


       chdir(2), path_resolution(7)


       This  page is part of release 3.35 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs,
       can be found at

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