TAIL(1)                                                          User Commands                                                         TAIL(1)

NAME

       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION

       Print  the  last  10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.
       With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -c, --bytes=K
              output the last K bytes; alternatively, use -c +K to output bytes starting with the Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --follow=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
              output the last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to output lines starting with the Kth

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has  been  unlinked  or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files).  With inotify, this option is rarely useful.

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       --retry
              keep trying to open a file even when it is or becomes inaccessible; useful when following by name, i.e., with --follow=name

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between iterations.  With inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least
              once every N seconds.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       If the first character of K (the number of bytes or lines) is a `+', print beginning with the Kth item from the  start  of  each  file,
       otherwise,  print  the last K items in the file.  K may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which means that even if a  tail'ed  file  is  renamed,  tail  will
       continue  to  track its end.  This default behavior is not desirable when you really want to track the actual name of the file, not the
       file descriptor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes tail  to  track  the  named  file  in  a  way  that
       accommodates renaming, removal and creation.

AUTHOR

       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyering.

REPORTING BUGS

       Report tail bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report tail translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

       The  full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and tail programs are properly installed at your site,
       the command

              info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.
 

Hi, Guest!

This is a manual page collection for Linux and Unix-like operating system.

Features

  • Works with all browsers and mobile phones.
  • The HTML in this layout validates as XHTML 1.0 strict.

Links

Search this site