SED(1)                                                           User Commands                                                          SED(1)

NAME

       sed - stream editor for filtering and transforming text

SYNOPSIS

       sed [OPTION]... {script-only-if-no-other-script} [input-file]...

DESCRIPTION

       Sed  is  a  stream  editor.   A  stream editor is used to perform basic text transformations on an input stream (a file or input from a
       pipeline).  While in some ways similar to an editor which permits scripted edits (such as ed), sed works by making only one  pass  over
       the  input(s),  and  is  consequently  more  efficient.   But  it  is  sed's  ability  to  filter text in a pipeline which particularly
       distinguishes it from other types of editors.

       -n, --quiet, --silent

              suppress automatic printing of pattern space

       -e script, --expression=script

              add the script to the commands to be executed

       -f script-file, --file=script-file

              add the contents of script-file to the commands to be executed

       --follow-symlinks

              follow symlinks when processing in place

       -i[SUFFIX], --in-place[=SUFFIX]

              edit files in place (makes backup if extension supplied)

       -l N, --line-length=N

              specify the desired line-wrap length for the `l' command

       --posix

              disable all GNU extensions.

       -r, --regexp-extended

              use extended regular expressions in the script.

       -s, --separate

              consider files as separate rather than as a single continuous long stream.

       -u, --unbuffered

              load minimal amounts of data from the input files and flush the output buffers more often

       --help
              display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       If no -e, --expression, -f, or --file option is given, then the first non-option argument is taken as the sed script to interpret.  All
       remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard input is read.

       GNU  sed  home  page:  <http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/>.  General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>.  E-mail bug
       reports to: <bug-gnu-utils@gnu.org>.  Be sure to include the word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

COMMAND SYNOPSIS

       This is just a brief synopsis of sed commands to serve as a reminder to those who already know sed; other documentation  (such  as  the
       texinfo document) must be consulted for fuller descriptions.

   Zero-address ``commands''
       : label
              Label for b and t commands.

       #comment
              The comment extends until the next newline (or the end of a -e script fragment).

       }      The closing bracket of a { } block.

   Zero- or One- address commands
       =      Print the current line number.

       a \

       text   Append text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       i \

       text   Insert text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       q [exit-code]
              Immediately quit the sed script without processing any more input, except that if auto-print is not disabled the current pattern
              space will be printed.  The exit code argument is a GNU extension.

       Q [exit-code]
              Immediately quit the sed script without processing any more input.  This is a GNU extension.

       r filename
              Append text read from filename.

       R filename
              Append a line read from filename.  Each invocation of the command reads a line from the file.  This is a GNU extension.

   Commands which accept address ranges
       {      Begin a block of commands (end with a }).

       b label
              Branch to label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.

       c \

       text   Replace the selected lines with text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       d      Delete pattern space.  Start next cycle.

       D      Delete up to the first embedded newline in the pattern space.  Start next cycle, but skip reading from the  input  if  there  is
              still data in the pattern space.

       h H    Copy/append pattern space to hold space.

       g G    Copy/append hold space to pattern space.

       l      List out the current line in a ``visually unambiguous'' form.

       l width
              List out the current line in a ``visually unambiguous'' form, breaking it at width characters.  This is a GNU extension.

       n N    Read/append the next line of input into the pattern space.

       p      Print the current pattern space.

       P      Print up to the first embedded newline of the current pattern space.

       s/regexp/replacement/
              Attempt  to  match  regexp  against  the  pattern  space.   If  successful,  replace that portion matched with replacement.  The
              replacement may contain the special character & to refer to that portion of the pattern space which  matched,  and  the  special
              escapes \1 through \9 to refer to the corresponding matching sub-expressions in the regexp.

       t label
              If  a  s/// has done a successful substitution since the last input line was read and since the last t or T command, then branch
              to label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.

       T label
              If no s/// has done a successful substitution since the last input line was read and since the last t or T command, then  branch
              to label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.  This is a GNU extension.

       w filename
              Write the current pattern space to filename.

       W filename
              Write the first line of the current pattern space to filename.  This is a GNU extension.

       x      Exchange the contents of the hold and pattern spaces.

       y/source/dest/
              Transliterate the characters in the pattern space which appear in source to the corresponding character in dest.

Addresses

       Sed commands can be given with no addresses, in which case the command will be executed for all input lines; with one address, in which
       case the command will only be executed for input lines which match that address; or with two addresses, in which case the command  will
       be  executed  for all input lines which match the inclusive range of lines starting from the first address and continuing to the second
       address.  Three things to note about address ranges: the syntax is addr1,addr2 (i.e., the addresses are separated by a comma); the line
       which  addr1  matched  will  always be accepted, even if addr2 selects an earlier line; and if addr2 is a regexp, it will not be tested
       against the line that addr1 matched.

       After the address (or address-range), and before the command, a !  may be inserted, which specifies that  the  command  shall  only  be
       executed if the address (or address-range) does not match.

       The following address types are supported:

       number Match only the specified line number.

       first~step
              Match  every  step'th  line starting with line first.  For example, ``sed -n 1~2p'' will print all the odd-numbered lines in the
              input stream, and the address 2~5 will match every fifth line, starting with the second.  first can be zero; in this  case,  sed
              operates as if it were equal to step.  (This is an extension.)

       $      Match the last line.

       /regexp/
              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.

       \cregexpc
              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.  The c may be any character.

       GNU sed also supports some special 2-address forms:

       0,addr2
              Start  out in "matched first address" state, until addr2 is found.  This is similar to 1,addr2, except that if addr2 matches the
              very first line of input the 0,addr2 form will be at the end of its range, whereas  the  1,addr2  form  will  still  be  at  the
              beginning of its range.  This works only when addr2 is a regular expression.

       addr1,+N
              Will match addr1 and the N lines following addr1.

       addr1,~N
              Will match addr1 and the lines following addr1 until the next line whose input line number is a multiple of N.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS

       POSIX.2  BREs should be supported, but they aren't completely because of performance problems.  The \n sequence in a regular expression
       matches the newline character, and similarly for \a, \t, and other sequences.

BUGS

       E-mail bug reports to bonzini@gnu.org.  Be sure to include the word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.  Also, please  include
       the output of ``sed --version'' in the body of your report if at all possible.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This  is  free  software;  see  the source for copying conditions.  There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A
       PARTICULAR PURPOSE, to the extent permitted by law.

       GNU sed home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/>.  General help using GNU  software:  <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>.   E-mail  bug
       reports to: <bug-gnu-utils@gnu.org>.  Be sure to include the word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

SEE ALSO

       awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), tr(1), perlre(1), sed.info, any of various books on sed, the sed FAQ
       (http://sed.sf.net/grabbag/tutorials/sedfaq.txt), http://sed.sf.net/grabbag/.

       The full documentation for sed is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and sed programs are properly installed at your site,
       the command

              info sed

       should give you access to the complete manual.
 

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