rsync(1)                                                                                                                              rsync(1)


       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool


       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of copying.


       Rsync  is  a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very  flexible
       specification  of  the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent
       over the network by sending only the differences between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync  is  widely
       used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in
       size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are  made  on  the  destination
       file directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)


       Rsync  copies  files  either  to  or  from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it does not support copying files between two
       remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh  or  rsh)
       or  contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path
       contains  a  double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a  host  specification,  OR  when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING
       RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files are listed in an output format similar  to  "ls

       As  expected,  if  neither  the  source  or  destination  path specify a remote host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".  Don’t confuse "server" with an rsync daemon  --  a
       daemon is always a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.


       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the
       rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured  to
       use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can  also  specify  any remote shell you like, either by using the -e command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.


       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If  any  of
       the  files  already  exist  on  the  remote system then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the
       differences. See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on  the  local
       machine.  The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships,
       etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think
       of  a  trailing  / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both
       cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the containing directory on the destination.  In other words,  each
       of the following commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that host and module references don’t require a trailing slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example,
       both of these copy the remote directory’s contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and destination don’t have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it  behaves
       like an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.


       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the
       first, or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you’ll  need  to
       escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.  For instance:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest


       It  is  also  possible  to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
       daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid
       the password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to the password you want to use  or  using  the  --password-file
       option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the connection via a web proxy by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
       your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy’s configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by setting the environment  variable  RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG  to  the
       commands  you  wish  to  run  in  place  of making a direct socket connection.  The string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the
       hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon)  on  the
       targethost (%H).


       It  is  sometimes  useful  to  use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket
       connections into a system (other than what is already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync  supports  connecting  to  a  host
       using  a remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its config file in the home dir of the remote
       user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer’s data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
       user,  you  may  not be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon
       transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only
       allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the  user’s  perspective,  a  daemon  transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
       rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
       --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If  you  need  to  specify  a  different  remote-shell  user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the
       rsync-user value (for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This means that you must give the ’-l  user’  option  to  ssh
       when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to the "module".


       In  order  to  connect  to  an  rsync  daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured
       something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to  start  a
       daemon  that  will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is the config file for the daemon, and
       it contains the full details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If you’re using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.


       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This handles the  merging  together  of  the  contents  of
       identically named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are transferred in a
       different order than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, either separate the files into different  rsync  calls,  or  consider
       using  --delay-updates  (which  doesn’t  affect the sorted transfer order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife’s home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote  machine,  which
       saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn’t very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)


       Rsync  accepts  both  long  (double-dash  + word) and short (single-dash + letter) options.  The full list of the available options are
       described below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a  long
       variant,  not  a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after the long variant, even though it must also
       be specified for the short.  When specifying a parameter, you  can  either  use  the  form  --option=param  or  replace  the  ’=’  with
       whitespace.   The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell’s command-line parsing.  Keep in mind that
       a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde into  your  home  directory
       (remove the ’=’ for that).

       --help Print  a  short help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions of
              rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A  single
              -v will give you information about what files are being transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give you
              information on what files are being skipped and slightly more information at the end. More than two -v options  should  only  be
              used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note  that  the  names of the transferred files that are output are done using a default --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points.  At the single -v  level  of  verbosity,  this  does  not
              mention  when  a  file  gets  its  attributes  changed.   If  you  ask  for  an  itemized  list  of  changed  attributes (either
              --itemize-changes or adding "%i" to the --out-format setting), the output (on the client) increases to mention  all  items  that
              are changed in any way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages from
              the remote server. This option is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client at the  start  of  a  daemon  transfer.   This  suppresses  the
              message-of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you want to request the list  of  modules  from  the

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally  rsync  will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same modification timestamp.  This option turns
              off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be updated.

              This modifies rsync’s "quick check" algorithm for finding files that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
              transferring  files  with  either  a changed size or a changed last-modified time to just looking for files that have changed in
              size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if they differ  by  no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In particular, when transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem (which represents times with  a  2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file’s size and  time  of  last  modification  match  between  the  sender  and
              receiver.   This  option  changes  this  to  compare  a 128-bit checksum for each file that has a matching size.  Generating the
              checksums means that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the  transfer  (and  this  is
              prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so this can slow things down significantly.

              The  sending  side  generates  its checksums while it is doing the file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.
              The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size as
              the corresponding sender’s file:  files with either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync  always  verifies  that  each transferred file was correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer verification has nothing
              to do with this option’s before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

              For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This  is  equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r  is
              not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

              You  may  turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are implied by  other  options  (e.g.  --no-D,  --no-perms)  or  have  different  defaults  in  various
              circumstances  (e.g.  --no-whole-file,  --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option name
              after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o (--owner), instead of converting -a  into  -rlptgD,  you  could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of -a
              --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from option are NOT positional, as  it  affects  the  default  state  of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

              Beginning  with  rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directories have been completed.  This incremental scan only affects our
              recursion  algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are
              at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These  include:
              --delete-before,  --delete-after,  --prune-empty-dirs,  and  --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode when you
              specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use  --del  or  --delete-during  to
              request  this  improved  deletion  mode  explicitly).   See  also  the  --delete-delay option that is a better choice than using

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are sent to the server  rather  than  just
              the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful when you want to send several different directories at the same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote  machine,  preserving  its  full  path.   These  extra  path
              elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file  that  you  didn’t  realize  had  a  symlink in its path.  If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the
              symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If you’re dealing with an older rsync on the sending side,  you
              may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
              a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/."  would  not
              be  abbreviated.)   For older rsync versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"  command  doesn’t  remain  in  effect  for  future
              commands.)  If you’re pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of  the  --relative  option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the transfer.  This means that the  corresponding  path  elements  on  the
              destination  system  are  left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a directory  on  the  receiving

              For  instance,  if  a  command-line  arg  or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination  system,  the
              receiving  rsync  would  ordinarily  delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into the new directory.
              With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means that the  file
              ends  up  being  created  in  "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option
              (which will also affect symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you request and you wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don’t specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if  --delete  is  also  in
              effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your existing
              excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that  if  you  are  supplying
              your  own filter rules, you may need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it
              has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of  ’*’,  the  auto-added
              rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.
              This can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the
              files backed up in the specified directory will keep their original filenames).

              Note  that  if  you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
              want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver,  the  backup  dir
              cannot go outside the module’s path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if no
              --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time that is newer than the source  file.
              (If  an  existing  destination  file  has  a  modification  time equal to the source file’s, it will be updated if the sizes are

              Note that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
              sender  and receiver is always considered to be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In other
              words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option  changes  how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is complete, rsync  instead  writes  the  updated  data  directly  to  the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard  links  are  not  broken.  This means the new data will be visible through other hard links to the destination file.
                     Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in a "tug  of  war"
                     with the destination data changing back and forth.

              o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be updated (either the OS will prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in
                     their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file’s data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and will  be  left  that  way  if  the  transfer  is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A  file  that  rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user can update any file, a normal user needs to be
                     granted write permission for the open of the file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if some data in the  destination  file  is  overwritten
                     before  it  can be copied to a position later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup, since rsync is smart
                     enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed by others, so be careful when  choosing  to  use
              this for a copy.

              This  option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes or appended data, and also on systems that are disk
              bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the  entire  contents  of  a
              file that only has minor changes.

              The  option  implies  --partial  (since  an interrupted transfer does not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto the end of the file, which presumes that the data that already  exists
              on  the  receiving  side is identical with the start of the file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and its
              size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not interfere  with  the
              updating  of  a file’s non-content attributes (e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be transferred,
              nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse (since  it  is
              always extending a file’s length).

              This  works  just  like  the  --append option, but the existing data on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum
              verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-appending
              --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior  to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync (or
              the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell the sending side to include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike  --recursive,  a  directory’s  contents  are  not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and output a message to that  effect  for  each
              one).  If you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

              The  --dirs  option  is implied by the --files-from option or the --list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn’t specified (so that directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want  to  turn
              this off.

              There  is  also  a  backward-compatibility  helper  option,  --old-dirs  (or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync  to use a hack of "-r
              --exclude=’/*/*’" to get an older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of  rsync,  this  option  also  had  the  side-effect  of  telling  the  receiving  side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you’ll need to specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra  behavior.   The
              only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have
              the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also  treated
              like  ordinary  files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no additional
              effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored. Using
              this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if you
              don’t want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will  delete
              anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks  applies  to  all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths  match  up
              right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This  works  because  rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a  real  directory,  but  only  if  it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option, the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory  "bar"  on
              the  receiver.   Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives the file
              into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible  for  an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink references.  For backup copies,  you  are  better  off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells  rsync  to  look  for  hard-linked files in the source and link together the corresponding files on the destination.
              Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the destination exactly matches that  on  the  source.
              Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links include the following:

              o      If  the  destination  contains  extraneous  hard-links  (more  linking than what is present in the source file list), the
                     copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.  However, if one or more of the paths  have  content  differences,  the
                     normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If  you  specify  a  --link-dest  directory  that  contains  hard links, the linking of the destination files against the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination to become linked together due to the --link-dest associations.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates  a  file  that  has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your files are being updated so that you are  certain  that  no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which  files
              are  hard-linked  together),  just  its efficiency (i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could
              have been found later in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is
              to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
              This  option  causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing  permissions,  though  the  --executability  option  might
                     change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file’s permissions masked with the receiving directory’s
                     default permissions (either the receiving process’s umask, or the permissions specified via the  destination  directory’s
                     default  ACL),  and their special permission bits disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit
                     from its parent directory.

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync’s behavior is the same as that  of  other  file-copy  utilities,
              such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to  give  destination  files  (both  old  and  new)  the  source  permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
              destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the  --perms  option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all  non-masked bits get enabled).  If you’d care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z  option,
              and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation  of  the  destination’s  setgid bit on newly-created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
              Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while
              overriding the destination’s setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch
              for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in mind that it  is
              the version of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This  option  causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one ’x’ is turned on in its permissions.  When an  existing  destination
              file’s  executability  differs  from that of the corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file’s permissions as

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its ’x’ permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each ’x’ permission that has a corresponding ’r’ permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option to  work  properly.   See  the  --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compatible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.
              A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user, see  the
              --fake-super option.

              Note  that  this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
              (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.   The
              resulting  value is treated as though it were the permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this
              option can seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not enabled.

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply  to  a
              directory  by  prefixing  it  with  a  ’D’, or specify an item that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a ’F’.  For
              example, the following will ensure that all directories get marked set-gid, that no files  are  other-writable,  that  both  are
              user-writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent executability across all bits:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is just appended to the list of changes to make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
              This  option  causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiving
              rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option,  the  owner  of  new
              and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  ownership  will  associate  matching  names  by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as the source file.  If the  receiving  program
              is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side is a
              member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the invoking user on  the  receiving

              The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync  to transfer modification times along with the files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that have not been modified cannot be  effective;  in  other  words,  a
              missing  -t  or  -a  will  cause  the  next transfer to behave as if it used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync’s
              delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files haven’t actually changed,  you’re  much  better  off
              using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This  tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
              on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.   These
              activities  include: preserving users via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user’s groups) via the
              --groups option, and copying devices via the --devices option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities  without
              being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn’t being run as the super-user.
              To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-super.

              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities by saving/restoring the  privileged  attributes  via  special
              extended  attributes  that  are  attached  to each file (as needed).  This includes the file’s owner and group (if it is not the
              default), the file’s device info (device & special files are created as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won’t
              allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner’s access (since
              the real super-user can always access/change a file, the files we create can always be accessed/changed by the  creating  user).
              This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection,
              specify an rsync path:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

              Since there is only one "side" in a local copy, this option affects both the sending and receiving of  files.   You’ll  need  to
              specify  a  copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, possibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support directory)
              as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon’s rsyncd.conf file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it’s not
              possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  makes  rsync perform a trial run that doesn’t make any changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It is
              most commonly used in combination with the -v, --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an  rsync  command  is
              going to do before one actually runs it.

              The  output  of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn’t, that’s a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
              areas.   Notably,  a  dry  run  does not send the actual data for file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
              "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent  to  a  run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With  this  option  rsync’s  delta-transfer algorithm is not used and the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the source and destination machines is higher  than  the  bandwidth  to
              disk  (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and destination
              are specified as local paths, but only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does not limit  the  user’s  ability  to  specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync’s recursion through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind"  mount  to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at
              each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the mounted  directory  because  those  of  the  underlying  mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If  rsync  has  been  told  to  collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another
              device is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist yet on the destination.   If  this  option  is
              combined  with  the  --ignore-existing  option,  no  files  will be updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  tells  rsync  to  skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that got
              interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new directory hierarchy  (when  it  is  used  properly),  using  --ignore
              existing  will  ensure that the already-handled files don’t get tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the  transfer  and  have
              been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note  that you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that the finished files get renamed into  the  source  directory,  not
              directly  written into it, so that rsync can’t possibly transfer a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can’t first write
              the files into a different directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that  are  not  yet
              finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  ""  when  it  is  written,  rename it to "foo" when it is done, and then use the option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren’t on the sending side),  but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are being synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets  a
              request  to  transfer  individual  files,  not  the files’ parent directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded option or mark the rules as only matching on the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7,  this option would have no effect unless --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If  the  sending  side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing  a  massive  deletion  of
              files on the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-errors option.

              The  --delete  option  may  be  combined  with  one of the --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.
              However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during  algorithm  when  talking  to
              rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the  --delete-before  algorithm  when  talking  to  an  older rsync.  See also --delete-delay and

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and  this  delay  might  cause  the
              transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that
              requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer happens.  The  per-directory  delete
              scan  is done right before each directory is checked for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being updated.  This option was first added in rsync version  2.6.4.
              See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed
              after the transfer completes.  This is useful when combined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy,  and  is  more  efficient  than
              using  --delete-after  (but  can  behave  differently,  since --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate pass after all
              updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer,  a  temporary  file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to  hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn’t see it during the transfer).  If the creation of
              the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if  --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving side be done after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to  take  effect  for  the  delete
              phase  of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details  on

              In  addition  to  deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).  See the FILTER RULES  section  for  a  way  to  make  individual
              exclusions  behave  this  way  on  the  receiver, and for a way to protect files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note  for  older  rsync  versions: --force used to still be required when using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If that limit is exceeded, a warning  is  output  and  rsync
              exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

              Also  new  for  version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don’t know what version the client is,  you  can
              use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though older versions
              didn’t warn when the limit was exceeded).

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be  suffixed  with  a
              string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t
              affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G"  (or  "GiB")
              is  a  gibibyte  (1024*1024*1024).   If  you  want  the  multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note:
              lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will  be  offset  by
              one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              This  tells  rsync  to  avoid  transferring any file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the size
              of each file being updated.  See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This  option  allows  you  to  choose  an alternative remote shell program to use for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon  on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be  transmitted  through  that remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the  section  "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
              CONNECTION" above.

              Command-line  arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must use
              spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command and  args  from  each  other,  and  you  can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted
              string gives you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your  shell  is
              parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when  rsync  is  not  in  the
              default  remote-shell’s path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it
              can be any program, script, or command sequence you’d care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out
              that rsync is using to communicate.

              One  tricky  example  is  to  set  a  different default directory on the remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files that you often don’t want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be ignored.

              The  exclude  list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$*  *$  *.old  *.bak  *.BAK  *.orig
                     *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
              Unlike rsync’s filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified
              explicitly.   If  you  want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a
              command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and
              "-C"  rules  into a filter file with your other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore
              file.  The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is  most
              useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may  use  as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The  text  below  also
              mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The  -F  option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through  the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

              This  option  is  a  simplified  form  of  the  --filter  option  that  defaults  to an exclude rule and does not allow the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines in the file and lines starting with ’;’ or ’#’ are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.

              This  option  is  a  simplified  form  of  the  --filter  option  that  defaults  to an include rule and does not allow the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines in the file and lines starting with ’;’ or ’#’ are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.

              Using  this  option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in  the  file
                     (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --dirs  (-d)  option  is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than
                     noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option’s behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line  has
                     no  bearing  on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all
                     other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes  are  removed  and  no  ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory  would  also  be  sent  (without
              needing  to  be  explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir’s entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with  --files-from,
              since  it  is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in  front
              of  the  file  (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use
              the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host’s charset to the receiving host’s charset.

              NOTE:  sorting  the  list  of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
              path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the input is not sorted, some path  elements  (implied  directories)
              may  end  up  being  scanned  multiple  times,  and  rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null (’\0’)  character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
              CR+LF.   This  affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.  It does
              not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.   This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &, etc.).
              Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also be translated from the local  to  the  remote
              character-set.  The translation happens before wild-cards are expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync  to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of  the  largest
              file  in  the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able
              to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must  copy  it  into  place.
              Rsync  does  this  by  copying the file over the top of the destination file, which means that the destination file will contain
              truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this way (even if the destination file  were  first  removed,  the  data
              locally  copied  to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for the old
              file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the  new  version
              on the disk at the same time.

              If  you  are  using  this  option  for  reasons  other  than  a  shortage  of  disk  space,  you may wish to combine it with the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get  put  into  subdirectories  in  the  destination  hierarchy,
              awaiting  the  end  of  the  transfer.   If  you  don’t  have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
              partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren’t overly concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a
              relative  path;  because  this  tells  rsync  that  it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it  into  place  from
              there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This  option  tells  rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that  has  an  identical  size  and  modified-time,  or  a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note  that  the  use  of  the  --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as  an  additional  hierarchy  to  compare  destination  files
              against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical to
              the sender’s file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination directory.  This is useful for creating a  sparse  backup
              of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

              Beginning  in  version  2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a  local  copy  is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.   If  a  match  is  not  found,  a  basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in  DIR  to  the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the  list  in  the  order  specified  for  an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files must
              be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to  be  linked  together.
              An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If  file’s  aren’t  linking, double-check their attributes.  Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync’s
              control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS
              X’s "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning  in  version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that differs  only  in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.   If  a  match  is  not  found,  a  basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as rsync treats existing files  as  definitive  (so  it
              never  looks  in the link-dest dirs when a destination file already exists), and as malleable (so it might change the attributes
              of a destination file, which affects all the hard-linked versions).

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user when
              -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which  reduces  the  amount  of  data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection.

              Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a
              compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly
              sent over the connection.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.

              Explicitly  set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --compress
              option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.  The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the  dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and ’-’ has no special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

              Here’s an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version of rsync):

              7z avi bz2 deb gz iso jpeg jpg mov mp3 mp4 ogg rpm tbz tgz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from  a  daemon  rsync  will  add  your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default).

              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to give  files.  The  special  uid  0  and  the
              special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If  a  user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information  on
              how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If  the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By  default  rsync  will  bind  to  the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows you to
              specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873.  This is only needed if  you  are  using  the
              double-colon  (::)  syntax  to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set  all  sorts  of
              socket  options  which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on
              some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options  are  set.  This  only  affects  direct  socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync
              defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes.  This  is  exactly
              the  same  as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on  the  output  of
              other verbose messages).

              The  "%i"  escape  has  a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

              o      A  c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of
                     a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a  S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters that will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
              (2)  an  identical  item  replaces  the dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can
              happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special
                     file  has  a  changed  value.   Note  that  if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be
                     present only for checksum-differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender’s value (requires --times).  An alternate
                     value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a file/symlink/device is
                     updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can’t set its time.  (Note: when  using  an  rsync
                     3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender’s value (requires --perms).

              o      An  o  means  the  owner  is  different  and  is  being  updated  to  the sender’s value (requires --owner and super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender’s value (requires --group and the  authority  to  set
                     the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information changed.

              One  other  output  is  possible:   when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.   A default  format  of  "%n%L"  is
              assumed if -v is specified (which reports the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list of
              the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying the --out-format option will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
              a  recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string
              (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in  any  way
              (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file’s transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in
              which case the logging is done at the end of the file’s transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and  --progress  is  also
              specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course,
              by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the logging that  a  daemon  does,  but  can  be
              requested  for  the  client  side  and/or  the  server side of a non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here’s a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option  (which  must
              also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is ’%i %n%L’.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on  the  file  transfer,  allowing  you  to  tell  how  effective  rsync’s
              delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc.

              o      Number  of  files  transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm, which
                     does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.  This does not count  any  size  for  directories  or
                     special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files.

              o      File  list  size  is  how  big  the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a  modern
                     rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side.
                     "Non-message" bytes means that we don’t count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the
                     stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they’re valid
              in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless  of
              this option’s setting.

              The  escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.
              For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is  followed
              by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes big numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this option was specified once, these units are K (1000), M (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,  the
              units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

              By  default,  rsync  will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make
              a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A  better  way  to  keep  partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as  data  to
              speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated will
              simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to  have rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file’s directory when
              needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will  prevent  the  sending  of  any  partial-dir  files  that may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely
              deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f
              '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If  you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you  may  wish  to  override  rsync’s  exclude
              choice.   For  instance,  if  you  want  to  make rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and  add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.   -f  'R  .rsync-partial/'.   (Avoid  using  --delete-before  or
              --delete-during unless you don’t need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can  also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when --partial is specified.  For instance,  instead
              of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then
              just use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that the --partial option
              does  not  look  for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir),
              and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              For the purposes of the daemon-config’s "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This  is  so  that  a
              refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each file’s destination directory, but  if  you’ve  specified
              the  --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~"  dirs
              that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This  option  uses  more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute  path  to
              --partial-dir  unless  (1)  there  is  no chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated
              files will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the
              delayed updates will fail if they can’t be renamed into place).

              See  also  the  "atomic-rsync"  perl  script  in  the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories that have
              no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is
              recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus  does
              not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

              Because  the  file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to an  exclude  both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You  can  prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

              --filter ’protect emptydir/’

              Here’s an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination  directories  to  hold  the
              .pdf  files,  and  ensures  that  any  superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest

              If you didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files, the more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you).

              This  option  tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch.
              Implies --verbose if it wasn’t already specified.

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender’s file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be misleading if rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender’s file consists of
              the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when  the  receiver  gets  to  the
              literal  data,  and  the  transfer  will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the
              matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38  kilobytes
              per  second  over  the  8  seconds  that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync
              session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the  396
              total files in the file-list.

       -P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a
              long transfer that may be interrupted.

              This option allows you to provide a password in a file for accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.   It
              should contain just the password as the first line of the file (all other lines are ignored).

              This  option  does  not  supply  a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote
              shell’s documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect
              after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon’s config file).

              This  option  will  cause  the  source  files to be listed instead of transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a
              file-listing  command,  or  (2)  to  be  able  to  specify  more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).
              Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try
              to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
              an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive,  and
              older  rsyncs don’t have that option.  To avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don’t need to expand a
              directory’s content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second. This option  is  most  effective  when  using
              rsync  with large files (several megabytes and up). Due to the nature of rsync transfers, blocks of data are sent, then if rsync
              determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait before sending the next data block. The result is an  average  transfer  rate
              equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note  that  you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don’t mind a partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also  note  that  you  only  save  bandwidth  when pushing changes to a remote system because this allows the batched data to be
              diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the  sender  is
              remote, and thus can’t write the batch).

              Apply  all  of  the  changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
              read from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an  older  version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run
              the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version  to  be
              used in the batch file (assuming you can’t upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
              default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the
              option will stay the same whether you’re pushing or pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC
              of  "-"  to  turn  off  any  conversion.   The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the
              RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being
              sent to the remote host.  See also the --files-from option.

              Note  that  rsync  does  not  do  any conversion of names in filter files (including include/exclude files).  It is up to you to
              ensure that you’re specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify  extra
              include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When  you  pass  an  --iconv  option  to  an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"
              configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify just  the  local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to  prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon.  See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect.  The --version output will  tell  you  if
              this is the case.

              Set  the  checksum  seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and file checksum calculation.
              By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time() .  This  option  is  used  to  set  a
              specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the case where the
              user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.


       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If  standard  input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made  by  a  client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

              By  default  rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting  possible  in  conjunction  with  the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client can
              still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested value will be rounded down if they  try  to  exceed  it.   See  the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

              This  specifies  an  alternate  config file than the default.  This is only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not  the  super-user;  in  that
              case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

              When  running  as  a  daemon,  this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such  as  daemontools
              or  AIX’s  System  Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873.   See  also  the  "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file.
              It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its  startup  phase.   After  the  client  connects,  the
              daemon’s  verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module’s
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use  to  listen  for  connections.
              One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect.  The --version output will  tell  you  if
              this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.


       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g.  to  read  them  from  a

       As  the  list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is  skipped;  if  it  is  an
       include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You  have  your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ’,’ separating
       the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space  or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note  that  the  --include/--exclude  command-line  options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only
       allow the specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when  rules  are
       read  from a file).  If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if
       "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A --filter option, on the other  hand,  must
       always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also  that  the  --filter,  --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the
       options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.


       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules  (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES
       section  above).   The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the hierarchy  of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
              against  the  end  of  the  pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of
              "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file’s directory (for a per-directory rule).   An
              unqualified  "foo"  would  match  a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top
              down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the filename.  Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"  would
              match  at  any  point  in  the  hierarchy  where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING
              INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern contains one of  these  three
              wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ .

       o      a ’*’ matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a ’[’ introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against the full pathname,  including  any
              leading  directories.  If  the pattern doesn’t contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the
              starting directory on down.)

       o      a  trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited  from  the  top
       down,  so  include/exclude  patterns  get  applied  recursively  to  each  subcomponent’s full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the
       subcomponents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory  traversal  stage
       when  rsync  finds  the  files  to  send.   If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern
       ineffectual because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly important when using  a
       trailing ’*’ rule.  For instance, this won’t work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This  fails  because  the  parent directory "some" is excluded by the ’*’ rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a  single  rule:  "+  */"
       (put  it  somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance, this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two  levels  below  a  directory  named  foo  in  the  transfer-root

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The  combination  of  "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must
              be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  /  specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending  files  from  the  "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A  !  specifies  that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude
              all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in  place  of  the  "-C".   No  arg
              should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used  to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified,  in  which  case
              default  rules  become  sender-side  only.   See  also  the  hide  (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from  being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted.  For instance, the -C
              option’s  default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that
              was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.


       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the
       FILTER RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of merged files -- single-instance (’.’) and per-directory (’:’).  A single-instance merge file is read one time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every
       directory  that  it  traverses  for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules.
       These per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the  sending  side  that  is  being  scanned  for  the
       available  files  to  transfer.  These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what
       files don’t get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on ’n’,  ’w’,  and  ’-’,  but  also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.
              Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules  (assuming
              that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

       o      You  may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the
              file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/ .excl"
              would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their
              per-directory rules apply only on the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s  or  r  modifier  or
              both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are  inherited  in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-file was found unless the ’n’ modifier was
       used.  Each subdirectory’s rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives  the  newest  rules  a
       higher  priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was
       specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules.   When  the
       list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another  way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules
       in a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file’s directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file  "foo"  in  the
       directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here’s an example filter file which you’d specify via --filter=". file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan  follow  the  global  anchoring  rules  (i.e.  a
       leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If  a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all
       the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory  file.   For  instance,  here  is  a
       common filter (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule  tells  rsync  to  scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are  sent  as  a  part  of  the  transfer.
       (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two  commands  above  will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If  you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the
       .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option’s inclusion  of
       the  per-directory  .cvsignore  file  gets  placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without
       this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a  lower  priority  than
       your command-line rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of  the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list
       rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to
       all  your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the
       value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line  option  and  instead  insert  a  "-C"  rule  into  your  filter  rules;  e.g.


       You  can  clear  the  current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The
       "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the  rule  is  encountered  while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a  set  of
       per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent’s rules).


       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns,
       which are anchored at the merge-file’s directory).  If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from  sender
       to  receiver,  the  transfer-root  is  where  the  tree  starts to be duplicated in the destination directory.  This root governs where
       patterns that start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a  source  path  or  changing  your  use  of  the
       --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on
       the destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let’s say that we want to match two source  files,  one  with  an  absolute  path  of  "/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one  with  a  path  of
       "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name
       (use the --dry-run option if you’re not yet ready to copy any files).


       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to  exclude  the  merge  files
       themselves  without  affecting  the  transfer.   To  make  this  easy, the ’e’ modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two
       equivalent commands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you’ll need to  be
       sure  that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer
       and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as  the  sending  side  before  it
       tries to delete anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on
       the command line), or you’ll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example  of  the  first  is
       this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to
       the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but we want to use our own  .rsync-filter
       files  to  control  what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so
       that they don’t get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted.  Like  one  of  these

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


       Batch  mode  can  be  used  to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
       number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and those changes need to  be  propagated  to  the  other
       hosts.  In  order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to
       one of the destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed  to
       repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating  the  batch  file  once  saves  having  to  perform the file status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when
       updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel  to  many
       hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch
       file, and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used:  it will be named the same as the  batch  file
       with  ".sh"  appended.   This  script  file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch
       file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname  which  is
       then used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the
       one used to create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the information to repeat  this  operation  is  stored  in
       "foo"  and  "".   The  host  "remote" is then updated with the batched data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences
       between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host  using
              either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The  first  example  uses  the  created  "" file to get the right rsync options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch file doesn’t  need  to  be  copied  to  the  remote
              machine  first.   This  example  avoids the script because it needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could
              edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create
       the batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a  warning
       (if  the  file  appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update
       discarded with an error.  This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got  interrupted.   If  you
       wish  to  force  the  batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file’s size and date, use the -I option (when reading the
       batch).  If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its
       regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an
       error if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
       way  to  have  the  creating  rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in
       version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data in the batch file if you didn’t set them  to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as  a  "here"
       document  to  the  shell  script  file.   An  advanced user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell  script  as  an  easy  way  to  run  the  appropriate
       --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new implementation.


       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of  the  site.   Using
       --copy-unsafe-links  will  cause  any  links  to be copied as the file they point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause
       unsafe links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".." components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here’s  a  summary  of  how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options
       isn’t mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.


       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is  "protocol
       version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is
       using for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error
       from  rsync  then  you  will  probably  find  that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is
       producing it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile)  that  contain  output
       statements for non-interactive logins.

       If  you  are  having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show
       why each individual file is included or excluded.


       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot  support  them;  or  an
              option was specified that is supported by the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


              The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as  the  transport  for  rsync.   Command  line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e option.

              The  RSYNC_PROXY  environment  variable  allows  you to redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync
              daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run authenticated rsync connections to  an  rsync  daemon  without
              user  intervention.  Note that this does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell’s documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf




       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at


       This man page is current for version 3.0.9 of rsync.


       The  options  --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
       instance,  the  support  directory of the rsync distribution has an example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used
       with a restricted ssh login.


       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may  cover  questions  unanswered  by  this
       manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.  Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.


       Special  thanks  go  out  to:  John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin
       Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David  Bell.   I’ve  probably  missed  some  people,  my
       apologies if I have.


       rsync  was  originally  written  by  Andrew  Tridgell  and  Paul Mackerras.  Many people have later contributed to it.  It is currently
       maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                                                  23 Sep 2011                                                         rsync(1)

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