MYSQLDUMP(1)                                                 MySQL Database System                                                MYSQLDUMP(1)

NAME

       mysqldump - a database backup program

SYNOPSIS

       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]

DESCRIPTION

       The mysqldump client is a backup program originally written by Igor Romanenko. It can be used to dump a database or a collection of
       databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump typically contains SQL statements to
       create the table, populate it, or both. However, mysqldump can also be used to generate files in CSV, other delimited text, or XML
       format.

       mysqldump requires at least the SELECT privilege for dumped tables, SHOW VIEW for dumped views, TRIGGER for dumped triggers, and LOCK
       TABLES if the --single-transaction option is not used. Certain options might require other privileges as noted in the option
       descriptions.

       To reload a dump file, you must have the same privileges needed to create each of the dumped objects by issuing CREATE statements
       manually.

       If you are doing a backup on the server and your tables all are MyISAM tables, consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead because it can
       accomplish faster backups and faster restores. See mysqlhotcopy(1).

       There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:

           shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name ...]
           shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name ...
           shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases

       If you do not name any tables following db_name or if you use the --databases or --all-databases option, entire databases are dumped.

       mysqldump does not dump the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database by default.  mysqldump dumps INFORMATION_SCHEMA only if you name it explicitly
       on the command line, although currently you must also use the --skip-lock-tables option. Before MySQL 5.5 mysqldump silently ignores
       INFORMATION_SCHEMA even if you name it explicitly on the command line.

       mysqldump does not dump the performance_schema database.

       Before MySQL 5.5.25, mysqldump does not dump the general_log or slow_query_log tables for dumps of the mysql database. As of 5.5.25,
       the dump includes statements to recreate those tables so that they are not missing after reloading the dump file. Log table contents
       are not dumped.

       mysqldump also does not dump the MySQL Cluster ndbinfo information database.

       To see a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports, execute mysqldump --help.

       Some mysqldump options are shorthand for groups of other options:

       ·   Use of --opt is the same as specifying --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options, --disable-keys, --extended-insert,
           --lock-tables, --quick, and --set-charset. All of the options that --opt stands for also are on by default because --opt is on by
           default.

       ·   Use of --compact is the same as specifying --skip-add-drop-table, --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments, --skip-disable-keys, and
           --skip-set-charset options.

       To reverse the effect of a group option, uses its --skip-xxx form (--skip-opt or --skip-compact). It is also possible to select only
       part of the effect of a group option by following it with options that enable or disable specific features. Here are some examples:

       ·   To select the effect of --opt except for some features, use the --skip option for each feature. To disable extended inserts and
           memory buffering, use --opt --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick. (Actually, --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick is sufficient
           because --opt is on by default.)

       ·   To reverse --opt for all features except index disabling and table locking, use --skip-opt --disable-keys --lock-tables.

       When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option, order is important because options are processed first to last.
       For example, --disable-keys --lock-tables --skip-opt would not have the intended effect; it is the same as --skip-opt by itself.

       mysqldump can retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory
       before dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the --quick
       option (or --opt, which enables --quick). The --opt option (and hence --quick) is enabled by default, so to enable memory buffering,
       use --skip-quick.

       If you are using a recent version of mysqldump to generate a dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use the
       --opt or --extended-insert option. Use --skip-opt instead.

       For additional information about mysqldump, see Section 7.4, “Using mysqldump for Backups”.

       mysqldump supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqldump] and [client] groups of an
       option file.  mysqldump also supports the options for processing option files described at Section 4.2.3.4, “Command-Line Options that
       Affect Option-File Handling”.

       ·   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       ·   --add-drop-database

           Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement. This option is typically used in conjunction with the
           --all-databases or --databases option because no CREATE DATABASE statements are written unless one of those options is specified.

       ·   --add-drop-table

           Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

       ·   --add-drop-trigger

           Add a DROP TRIGGER statement before each CREATE TRIGGER statement.

               Note
               This option is supported only by mysqldump as supplied with MySQL Cluster. It is not available when using MySQL Server 5.5.

       ·   --add-locks

           Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is
           reloaded. See Section 8.2.2.1, “Speed of INSERT Statements”.

       ·   --all-databases, -A

           Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the --databases option and naming all the databases on the command
           line.

       ·   --all-tablespaces, -Y

           Adds to a table dump all SQL statements needed to create any tablespaces used by an NDBCLUSTER table. This information is not
           otherwise included in the output from mysqldump. This option is currently relevant only to MySQL Cluster tables.

       ·   --allow-keywords

           Permit creation of column names that are keywords. This works by prefixing each column name with the table name.

       ·   --apply-slave-statements

           For a slave dump produced with the --dump-slave option, add a STOP SLAVE statement before the CHANGE MASTER TO statement and a
           START SLAVE statement at the end of the output. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.3.

       ·   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, this option can be used to select which interface is employed when connecting to
           the MySQL server.

           This option is supported only in the version of mysqldump that is supplied with MySQL Cluster. It is not available in standard
           MySQL Server 5.5 releases.

       ·   --character-sets-dir=path

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.

       ·   --comments, -i

           Write additional information in the dump file such as program version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by default.
           To suppress this additional information, use --skip-comments.

       ·   --compact

           Produce more compact output. This option enables the --skip-add-drop-table, --skip-add-locks, --skip-comments, --skip-disable-keys,
           and --skip-set-charset options.

       ·   --compatible=name

           Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
           mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use several
           values, separate them by commas. These values have the same meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL mode.
           See Section 5.1.7, “Server SQL Modes”.

           This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available
           for making dump output more compatible. For example, --compatible=oracle does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle
           comment syntax.

           This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older servers, it does nothing.

       ·   --complete-insert, -c

           Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

       ·   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

       ·   --create-options

           Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE statements.

       ·   --databases, -B

           Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and following
           names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names.  CREATE DATABASE and USE statements are
           included in the output before each new database.

       ·   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is 'd:t:o,file_name'. The default value is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysqldump.trace'.

       ·   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       ·   --debug-info

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

       ·   --default-auth=plugin

           The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.6, “Pluggable Authentication”.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.9.

       ·   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”. If no character set is specified,
           mysqldump uses utf8, and earlier versions use latin1.

       ·   --delayed-insert

           Write INSERT DELAYED statements rather than INSERT statements.

       ·   --delete-master-logs

           On a master replication server, delete the binary logs by sending a PURGE BINARY LOGS statement to the server after performing the
           dump operation. This option automatically enables --master-data.

       ·   --disable-keys, -K

           For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE
           tbl_name ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file faster because the indexes are created after all rows are
           inserted. This option is effective only for nonunique indexes of MyISAM tables. It has no effect for other tables.

       ·   --dump-date

           If the --comments option is given, mysqldump produces a comment at the end of the dump of the following form:

               -- Dump completed on DATE

           However, the date causes dump files taken at different times to appear to be different, even if the data are otherwise identical.
           --dump-date and --skip-dump-date control whether the date is added to the comment. The default is --dump-date (include the date in
           the comment).  --skip-dump-date suppresses date printing.

       ·   --dump-slave[=value]

           This option is similar to --master-data except that it is used to dump a replication slave server to produce a dump file that can
           be used to set up another server as a slave that has the same master as the dumped server. It causes the dump output to include a
           CHANGE MASTER TO statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name and position) of the dumped slave's master (rather
           than the coordinates of the dumped server, as is done by the --master-data option). These are the master server coordinates from
           which the slave should start replicating. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.3.

           The option value is handled the same way as for --master-data and has the same effect as --master-data in terms of enabling or
           disabling other options and in how locking is handled.

           This option causes mysqldump to stop the slave SQL thread before the dump and restart it again after.

           In conjunction with --dump-slave, the --apply-slave-statements and --include-master-host-port options can also be used.

       ·   --events, -E

           Include Event Scheduler events for the dumped databases in the output.

       ·   --extended-insert, -e

           Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists. This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when
           the file is reloaded.

       ·   --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=..., --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...

           These options are used with the --tab option and have the same meaning as the corresponding FIELDS clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE.
           See Section 13.2.6, “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”.

       ·   --first-slave

           Deprecated. Use --lock-all-tables instead.  --first-slave was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

       ·   --flush-logs, -F

           Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This option requires the RELOAD privilege. If you use this option in
           combination with the --all-databases option, the logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when using
           --lock-all-tables, --master-data, or (as of MySQL 5.5.21) --single-transaction: In this case, the logs are flushed only once,
           corresponding to the moment that all tables are locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly the same
           moment, you should use --flush-logs together with --lock-all-tables, --master-data, or --single-transaction.

       ·   --flush-privileges

           Send a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement to the server after dumping the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump
           contains the mysql database and any other database that depends on the data in the mysql database for proper restoration.

       ·   --force, -f

           Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

           One use for this option is to cause mysqldump to continue executing even when it encounters a view that has become invalid because
           the definition refers to a table that has been dropped. Without --force, mysqldump exits with an error message. With --force,
           mysqldump prints the error message, but it also writes an SQL comment containing the view definition to the dump output and
           continues executing.

       ·   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host is localhost.

       ·   --hex-blob

           Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc' becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY,
           VARBINARY, the BLOB types, and BIT.

       ·   --include-master-host-port

           For the CHANGE MASTER TO statement in a slave dump produced with the --dump-slave option, add MASTER_PORT and MASTER_PORT options
           for the host name and TCP/IP port number of the slave's master. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.3.

       ·   --ignore-table=db_name.tbl_name

           Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this
           option multiple times. This option also can be used to ignore views.

       ·   --insert-ignore

           Write INSERT IGNORE statements rather than INSERT statements.

       ·   --lines-terminated-by=...

           This option is used with the --tab option and has the same meaning as the corresponding LINES clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. See
           Section 13.2.6, “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”.

       ·   --lock-all-tables, -x

           Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This
           option automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.

       ·   --lock-tables, -l

           For each dumped database, lock all tables to be dumped before dumping them. The tables are locked with READ LOCAL to permit
           concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. For transactional tables such as InnoDB, --single-transaction is a much better
           option than --lock-tables because it does not need to lock the tables at all.

           Because --lock-tables locks tables for each database separately, this option does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file
           are logically consistent between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in completely different states.

       ·   --log-error=file_name

           Log warnings and errors by appending them to the named file. The default is to do no logging.

       ·   --master-data[=value]

           Use this option to dump a master replication server to produce a dump file that can be used to set up another server as a slave of
           the master. It causes the dump output to include a CHANGE MASTER TO statement that indicates the binary log coordinates (file name
           and position) of the dumped server. These are the master server coordinates from which the slave should start replicating after you
           load the dump file into the slave.

           If the option value is 2, the CHANGE MASTER TO statement is written as an SQL comment, and thus is informative only; it has no
           effect when the dump file is reloaded. If the option value is 1, the statement is not written as a comment and takes effect when
           the dump file is reloaded. If no option value is specified, the default value is 1.

           This option requires the RELOAD privilege and the binary log must be enabled.

           The --master-data option automatically turns off --lock-tables. It also turns on --lock-all-tables, unless --single-transaction
           also is specified, in which case, a global read lock is acquired only for a short time at the beginning of the dump (see the
           description for --single-transaction). In all cases, any action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump.

           It is also possible to set up a slave by dumping an existing slave of the master. To do this, use the following procedure on the
           existing slave:

            1. Stop the slave's SQL thread and get its current status:

                   mysql> STOP SLAVE SQL_THREAD;
                   mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS;

            2. From the output of the SHOW SLAVE STATUS statement, the binary log coordinates of the master server from which the new slave
               should start replicating are the values of the Relay_Master_Log_File and Exec_Master_Log_Pos fields. Denote those values as
               file_name and file_pos.

            3. Dump the slave server:

                   shell> mysqldump --master-data=2 --all-databases > dumpfile

               Using --master-data=2 works only if binary logging has been enabled on the slave. Otherwise, mysqldump fails with the error
               Binlogging on server not active. In this case you must handle any locking issues in another manner, using one or more of
               --add-locks, --lock-tables, --lock-all-tables, or --single-transaction, as required by your application and environment.

            4. Restart the slave:

                   mysql> START SLAVE;

            5. On the new slave, load the dump file:

                   shell> mysql < dumpfile

            6. On the new slave, set the replication coordinates to those of the master server obtained earlier:

                   mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO
                       -> MASTER_LOG_FILE = 'file_name', MASTER_LOG_POS = file_pos;

               The CHANGE MASTER TO statement might also need other parameters, such as MASTER_HOST to point the slave to the correct master
               server host. Add any such parameters as necessary.

       ·   --no-autocommit

           Enclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET autocommit = 0 and COMMIT statements.

       ·   --no-create-db, -n

           This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE statements that are otherwise included in the output if the --databases or
           --all-databases option is given.

       ·   --no-create-info, -t

           Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped table.

               Note
               This option does not not exclude statements creating log file groups or tablespaces from mysqldump output; however, you can use
               the --no-tablespaces option for this purpose.

       ·   --no-data, -d

           Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table contents). This is useful if you want to dump only the CREATE
           TABLE statement for the table (for example, to create an empty copy of the table by loading the dump file).

       ·   --no-set-names, -N

           This has the same effect as --skip-set-charset.

       ·   --no-tablespaces, -y

           This option suppresses all CREATE LOGFILE GROUP and CREATE TABLESPACE statements in the output of mysqldump.

       ·   --opt

           This option is shorthand. It is the same as specifying --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys
           --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It should give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be
           reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.

           The --opt option is enabled by default. Use --skip-opt to disable it.  See the discussion at the beginning of this section for
           information about selectively enabling or disabling a subset of the options affected by --opt.

       ·   --order-by-primary

           Dump each table's rows sorted by its primary key, or by its first unique index, if such an index exists. This is useful when
           dumping a MyISAM table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make the dump operation take considerably longer.

       ·   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the
           option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqldump
           prompts for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, “End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

       ·   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       ·   --plugin-dir=path

           The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be necessary to specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to
           specify an authentication plugin but mysqldump does not find it. See Section 6.3.6, “Pluggable Authentication”.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.9.

       ·   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       ·   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause
           a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the
           MySQL Server”.

       ·   --quick, -q

           This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time
           rather than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before writing it out.

       ·   --quote-names, -Q

           Quote identifiers (such as database, table, and column names) within “`” characters. If the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled,
           identifiers are quoted within “"” characters. This option is enabled by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but
           this option should be given after any option such as --compatible that may enable --quote-names.

       ·   --replace

           Write REPLACE statements rather than INSERT statements.

       ·   --result-file=file_name, -r file_name

           Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on Windows to prevent newline “\n” characters from being converted to
           “\r\n” carriage return/newline sequences. The result file is created and its previous contents overwritten, even if an error occurs
           while generating the dump.

       ·   --routines, -R

           Include stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped databases in the output. Use of this option requires the SELECT
           privilege for the mysql.proc table. The output generated by using --routines contains CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION
           statements to re-create the routines. However, these statements do not include attributes such as the routine creation and
           modification timestamps. This means that when the routines are reloaded, they will be created with the timestamps equal to the
           reload time.

           If you require routines to be re-created with their original timestamp attributes, do not use --routines. Instead, dump and reload
           the contents of the mysql.proc table directly, using a MySQL account that has appropriate privileges for the mysql database.

           Prior to MySQL 5.5.21, this option had no effect when used together with the --xml option. (Bug #11760384, Bug #52792)

       ·   --set-charset

           Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use
           --skip-set-charset.

       ·   --single-transaction

           This option sets the transaction isolation mode to REPEATABLE READ and sends a START TRANSACTION SQL statement to the server before
           dumping data. It is useful only with transactional tables such as InnoDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the
           database at the time when START TRANSACTION was issued without blocking any applications.

           When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM
           or MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change state.

           Before MySQL 5.5.3, while a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary
           log coordinates), no other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE,
           TRUNCATE TABLE. A consistent read is not isolated from those statements, so use of them on a table to be dumped can cause the
           SELECT that is performed by mysqldump to retrieve the table contents to obtain incorrect contents or fail. As of MySQL 5.5.3,
           metadata locking prevents this situation.

           The --single-transaction option and the --lock-tables option are mutually exclusive because LOCK TABLES causes any pending
           transactions to be committed implicitly.

           This option is not supported for MySQL Cluster tables; the results cannot be guaranteed to be consistent due to the fact that the
           NDBCLUSTER storage engine supports only the READ_COMMITTED transaction isolation level. You should always use NDB backup and
           restore instead.

           To dump large tables, you should combine the --single-transaction option with --quick.

       ·   --skip-comments

           See the description for the --comments option.

       ·   --skip-opt

           See the description for the --opt option.

       ·   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       ·   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See Section 6.3.8.4, “SSL Command Options”.

       ·   --tab=path, -T path

           Produce tab-separated text-format data files. For each dumped table, mysqldump creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE
           TABLE statement that creates the table, and the server writes a tbl_name.txt file that contains its data. The option value is the
           directory in which to write the files.

               Note
               This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld server. You must have the FILE
               privilege, and the server must have permission to write files in the directory that you specify.
           By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The
           format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and --lines-terminated-by options.

           Column values are converted to the character set specified by the --default-character-set option.

       ·   --tables

           Override the --databases or -B option.  mysqldump regards all name arguments following the option as table names.

       ·   --triggers

           Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option is enabled by default; disable it with --skip-triggers.

       ·   --tz-utc

           This option enables TIMESTAMP columns to be dumped and reloaded between servers in different time zones.  mysqldump sets its
           connection time zone to UTC and adds SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' to the dump file. Without this option, TIMESTAMP columns are dumped and
           reloaded in the time zones local to the source and destination servers, which can cause the values to change if the servers are in
           different time zones.  --tz-utc also protects against changes due to daylight saving time.  --tz-utc is enabled by default. To
           disable it, use --skip-tz-utc.

       ·   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

       ·   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       ·   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       ·   --where='where_condition', -w 'where_condition'

           Dump only rows selected by the given WHERE condition. Quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other
           characters that are special to your command interpreter.

           Examples:

               --where="user='jimf'"
               -w"userid>1"
               -w"userid<1"

       ·   --xml, -X

           Write dump output as well-formed XML.

           NULL, 'NULL', and Empty Values: For a column named column_name, the NULL value, an empty string, and the string value 'NULL' are
           distinguished from one another in the output generated by this option as follows.

           ┌──────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┐
           │Value:XML Representation:                         │
           ├──────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────┤
           │NULL (unknown value)  │ <field name="column_name" xsi:nil="true" /> │
           ├──────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────┤
           │'' (empty string)     │ <field name="column_name"></field>          │
           ├──────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────┤
           │'NULL' (string value) │ <field name="column_name">NULL</field>      │
           └──────────────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────────────┘
           The output from the mysql client when run using the --xml option also follows the preceding rules. (See the section called “MYSQL
           OPTIONS”.)

           XML output from mysqldump includes the XML namespace, as shown here:

               shell> mysqldump --xml -u root world City
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <mysqldump xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
               <database name="world">
               <table_structure name="City">
               <field Field="ID" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="PRI" Extra="auto_increment" />
               <field Field="Name" Type="char(35)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="CountryCode" Type="char(3)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="District" Type="char(20)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="" Extra="" />
               <field Field="Population" Type="int(11)" Null="NO" Key="" Default="0" Extra="" />
               <key Table="City" Non_unique="0" Key_name="PRIMARY" Seq_in_index="1" Column_name="ID"
               Collation="A" Cardinality="4079" Null="" Index_type="BTREE" Comment="" />
               <options Name="City" Engine="MyISAM" Version="10" Row_format="Fixed" Rows="4079"
               Avg_row_length="67" Data_length="273293" Max_data_length="18858823439613951"
               Index_length="43008" Data_free="0" Auto_increment="4080"
               Create_time="2007-03-31 01:47:01" Update_time="2007-03-31 01:47:02"
               Collation="latin1_swedish_ci" Create_options="" Comment="" />
               </table_structure>
               <table_data name="City">
               <row>
               <field name="ID">1</field>
               <field name="Name">Kabul</field>
               <field name="CountryCode">AFG</field>
               <field name="District">Kabol</field>
               <field name="Population">1780000</field>
               </row>
               ...
               <row>
               <field name="ID">4079</field>
               <field name="Name">Rafah</field>
               <field name="CountryCode">PSE</field>
               <field name="District">Rafah</field>
               <field name="Population">92020</field>
               </row>
               </table_data>
               </database>
               </mysqldump>

           Prior to MySQL 5.5.21, this option prevented the --routines option from working correctly—that is, no stored routines, triggers, or
           events could be dumped in XML format. (Bug #11760384, Bug #52792)

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value syntax:

       ·   max_allowed_packet

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The maximum is 1GB.

       ·   net_buffer_length

           The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When creating multiple-row INSERT statements (as with the
           --extended-insert or --opt option), mysqldump creates rows up to net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you
           should also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL server is at least this large.

           Some options, such as --opt, automatically enable --lock-tables. If you want to override this, use --skip-lock-tables at the end of
           the option list.

       A common use of mysqldump is for making a backup of an entire database:

           shell> mysqldump db_name > backup-file.sql

       You can load the dump file back into the server like this:

           shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

       Or like this:

           shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data from one MySQL server to another:

           shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name

       It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

           shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql

       To dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

       For InnoDB tables, mysqldump provides a way of making an online backup:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql

       This backup acquires a global read lock on all tables (using FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as this
       lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and the lock is released. If long updating statements are running when the
       FLUSH statement is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled until those statements finish. After that, the dump becomes lock free and
       does not disturb reads and writes on the tables. If the update statements that the MySQL server receives are short (in terms of
       execution time), the initial lock period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as “roll-forward,” when you need to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened
       since that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”) or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql

       Or:

           shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2
                         > all_databases.sql

       The --master-data and --single-transaction options can be used simultaneously, which provides a convenient way to make an online backup
       suitable for use prior to point-in-time recovery if tables are stored using the InnoDB storage engine.

       For more information on making backups, see Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”, and Section 7.3, “Example Backup and Recovery
       Strategy”.

       If you encounter problems backing up views, please read the section that covers restrictions on views which describes a workaround for
       backing up views when this fails due to insufficient privileges. See Section E.5, “Restrictions on Views”.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

       This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are
       protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use,
       copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any
       form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for
       interoperability, is prohibited.

       The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors,
       please report them to us in writing.

       If this software or related documentation is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government,
       the following notice is applicable:

       U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government
       customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation
       and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject
       to the restrictions and license terms set forth in the applicable Government contract, and, to the extent applicable by the terms of
       the Government contract, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle
       USA, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.

       This software is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use
       in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications which may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software
       in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to
       ensure the safe use of this software. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of
       this software in dangerous applications.

       Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. MySQL is a trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
       affiliates, and shall not be used without Oracle's express written authorization. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
       owners.

       This software and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle
       Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party
       content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred
       due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.

       This document in any form, software or printed matter, contains proprietary information that is the exclusive property of Oracle. Your
       access to and use of this material is subject to the terms and conditions of your Oracle Software License and Service Agreement, which
       has been executed and with which you agree to comply. This document and information contained herein may not be disclosed, copied,
       reproduced, or distributed to anyone outside Oracle without prior written consent of Oracle or as specifically provided below. This
       document is not part of your license agreement nor can it be incorporated into any contractual agreement with Oracle or its
       subsidiaries or affiliates.

       This documentation is NOT distributed under a GPL license. Use of this documentation is subject to the following terms:

       You may create a printed copy of this documentation solely for your own personal use. Conversion to other formats is allowed as long as
       the actual content is not altered or edited in any way. You shall not publish or distribute this documentation in any form or on any
       media, except if you distribute the documentation in a manner similar to how Oracle disseminates it (that is, electronically for
       download on a Web site with the software) or on a CD-ROM or similar medium, provided however that the documentation is disseminated
       together with the software on the same medium. Any other use, such as any dissemination of printed copies or use of this documentation,
       in whole or in part, in another publication, requires the prior written consent from an authorized representative of Oracle. Oracle
       and/or its affiliates reserve any and all rights to this documentation not expressly granted above.

       For more information on the terms of this license, or for details on how the MySQL documentation is built and produced, please visit
       MySQL Contact & Questions.

       For additional licensing information, including licenses for third-party libraries used by MySQL products, see Preface and Legal
       Notices.

       For help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists where you can discuss your issues with other
       MySQL users.

       For additional documentation on MySQL products, including translations of the documentation into other languages, and downloadable
       versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation Library.

SEE ALSO

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be installed locally and which is also available
       online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR

       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).
 

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