MAKE(1)                                                       LOCAL USER COMMANDS                                                      MAKE(1)


       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs


       make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] ... [ targets ] ...


       This  man  page  is an extract of the documentation of GNU make.  It is updated only occasionally, because the GNU project does not use
       nroff.  For complete, current documentation, refer to the Info file which is made from the Texinfo source file make.texi.


       The purpose of the make utility is to determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to  be  recompiled,  and  issue  the
       commands  to  recompile  them.   The  manual describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by Richard Stallman and Roland
       McGrath, and is currently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since they are most common, but  you  can  use  make
       with  any  programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can use
       it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in your program, and the
       states  the  commands  for  updating each file.  In a program, typically the executable file is updated from object files, which are in
       turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses the makefile data base and the last-modification times of  the
       files to decide which of the files need to be updated.  For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.

       make  executes  commands  in  the  makefile  to update one or more target names, where name is typically a program.  If no -f option is
       present, make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

       Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We recommend Makefile because it  appears  prominently  near  the
       beginning  of  a  directory  listing,  right  near  other important files such as README.)  The first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not
       recommended for most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a makefile that  is  specific  to  GNU  make,  and  will  not  be
       understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is `-', the standard input is read.

       make  updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since the target was last modified, or if the target
       does not exist.


       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If  multiple  -C  options  are  specified,  each  is
            interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.  This is typically used with recursive invocations
            of make.

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The debugging information says which files are being considered for
            remaking,  which file-times are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade, which implicit rules
            are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to do.

            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the same  as  if  -d
            was  specified.   FLAGS  may  be  a  for  all debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more verbose basic
            debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and m for debugging while remaking makefiles.

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If several -I options are used to specify  several  directories,  the
            directories are searched in the order specified.  Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may
            come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as  -I  dir.   This  syntax  is  allowed  for  compatibility  with  the  C
            preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies  the  number  of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than one -j option, the last one is effective.
            If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that failed, and those that depend on it,  cannot  be  remade,  the
            other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies  that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average is at least load (a
            floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes  in  file.
            Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print  the  data  base  (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as otherwise
            specified.  This also prints the version information given by the -v switch (see below).  To print the data base without trying to
            remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ``Question  mode''.   Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit status that is zero if the specified targets
            are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the default list of suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel the effect of the -k option.  This is never necessary except in a recursive make where -k might be inherited from the  top-
            level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
            Touch  files  (mark them up to date without really changing them) instead of running their commands.  This is used to pretend that
            the commands were done, in order to fool future invocations of make.

       -v, --version
            Print the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
            Print a message containing the working directory before and after other processing.  This may be useful for tracking  down  errors
            from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend  that the target file has just been modified.  When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to
            modify that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before running make, except that
            the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.


       GNU  make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no targets that were built failed.  A status of one
       will be returned if the -q flag was used and make determines that a target needs to be rebuilt.  A status of two will  be  returned  if
       any errors were encountered.


       The GNU Make Manual


       See the chapter `Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual.


       This  manual  page  contributed  by  Dennis  Morse  of  Stanford  University.  It has been reworked by Roland McGrath.  Further updates
       contributed by Mike Frysinger.


       Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part of GNU make.

       GNU make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as  published  by
       the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.

       GNU  make  is  distributed  in  the  hope  that  it  will  be  useful,  but  WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with GNU make; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free
       Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

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