LS(1)                                                            User Commands                                                           LS(1)

NAME

       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION

       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is
       specified.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              scale sizes by SIZE before printing them.  E.g., `--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576  bytes.   See  SIZE  format
              below.

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with  -lt:  sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name
              otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to `always' or can be `never' or `auto'.  More info below

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append `*'

       --format=WORD
              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files.

              augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than  for  the  link
              itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified time
              as sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.  FORMAT is interpreted like `date';  if  FORMAT
              is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-',
              STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time, newest first

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any SELinux security context of each file

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so  on  for
       G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only
       when standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment variable  can  change  the  settings.   Use  the  dircolors
       command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS

       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

       The  full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.
 

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