LESS(1)                                                                                                                                LESS(1)

NAME

       less - opposite of more

SYNOPSIS

       less -?
       less --help
       less -V
       less --version
       less [-[+]aABcCdeEfFgGiIJKLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX~]
            [-b space] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile]
            [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag]
            [-T tagsfile] [-x tab,...] [-y lines] [-[z] lines]
            [-# shift] [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...
       (See the OPTIONS section for alternate option syntax with long option names.)

DESCRIPTION

       Less is a program similar to more (1), but which allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement.  Also, less does not
       have to read the entire input file before starting, so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi (1).   Less
       uses  termcap  (or  terminfo  on  some  systems),  so it can run on a variety of terminals.  There is even limited support for hardcopy
       terminals.  (On a hardcopy terminal, lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret.)

       Commands are based on both more and vi.  Commands may be preceded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions below.  The  number
       is used by some commands, as indicated.

COMMANDS

       In  the  following descriptions, ^X means control-X.  ESC stands for the ESCAPE key; for example ESC-v means the two character sequence
       "ESCAPE", then "v".

       h or H Help: display a summary of these commands.  If you forget all the other commands, remember this one.

       SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
              Scroll forward N lines, default one window (see option -z below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the  final  screenful
              is displayed.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a special literalization character.

       z      Like SPACE, but if N is specified, it becomes the new window size.

       ESC-SPACE
              Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful, even if it reaches end-of-file in the process.

       ENTER or RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
              Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

       d or ^D
              Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent d and
              u commands.

       b or ^B or ESC-v
              Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option -z below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the final  screenful
              is displayed.

       w      Like ESC-v, but if N is specified, it becomes the new window size.

       y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
              Scroll  backward  N  lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.  Warning: some
              systems use ^Y as a special job control character.

       u or ^U
              Scroll backward N lines, default one half of the screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new default  for  subsequent  d
              and u commands.

       ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
              Scroll  horizontally  right  N  characters,  default  half the screen width (see the -# option).  If a number N is specified, it
              becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.  While the text is scrolled, it acts as though the  -S  option
              (chop lines) were in effect.

       ESC-( or LEFTARROW
              Scroll  horizontally  left  N  characters,  default  half  the screen width (see the -# option).  If a number N is specified, it
              becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.

       r or ^R or ^L
              Repaint the screen.

       R      Repaint the screen, discarding any buffered input.  Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed.

       F      Scroll forward, and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached.  Normally this command would be used  when  already  at
              the  end  of  the  file.  It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed.  (The behavior is
              similar to the "tail -f" command.)

       g or < or ESC-<
              Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning of file).  (Warning: this may be slow if N is large.)

       G or > or ESC->
              Go to line N in the file, default the end of the file.  (Warning: this may be slow if N is large, or if N is not  specified  and
              standard input, rather than a file, is being read.)

       p or % Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be between 0 and 100, and may contain a decimal point.

       P      Go to the line containing byte offset N in the file.

       {      If  a  left  curly  bracket  appears  in the top line displayed on the screen, the { command will go to the matching right curly
              bracket.  The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen.  If there is more than one left curly
              bracket on the top line, a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.

       }      If  a  right  curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen, the } command will go to the matching left curly
              bracket.  The matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen.  If there is more than  one  right  curly
              bracket on the top line, a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.

       (      Like {, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.

       )      Like }, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.

       [      Like {, but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets.

       ]      Like }, but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets.

       ESC-^F Followed  by  two  characters,  acts like {, but uses the two characters as open and close brackets, respectively.  For example,
              "ESC ^F < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line.

       ESC-^B Followed by two characters, acts like }, but uses the two characters as open and close  brackets,  respectively.   For  example,
              "ESC ^B < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line.

       m      Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position with that letter.

       '      (Single  quote.)   Followed  by  any  lowercase  letter,  returns  to the position which was previously marked with that letter.
              Followed by another single quote, returns to the position at which the last "large" movement command was executed.  Followed  by
              a  ^  or  $,  jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively.  Marks are preserved when a new file is examined, so the '
              command can be used to switch between input files.

       ^X^X   Same as single quote.

       /pattern
              Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular expression,  as
              recognized  by  the  regular expression library supplied by your system.  The search starts at the first line displayed (but see
              the -a and -j options, which change this).

              Certain characters are special if entered at the beginning of the pattern; they modify the type of  search  rather  than  become
              part of the pattern:

              ^N or !
                     Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.

              ^E or *
                     Search  multiple  files.   That is, if the search reaches the END of the current file without finding a match, the search
                     continues in the next file in the command line list.

              ^F or @
                     Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list, regardless of what is currently  displayed
                     on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options.

              ^K     Highlight  any  text  which  matches  the  pattern on the current screen, but don't move to the first match (KEEP current
                     position).

              ^R     Don't interpret regular expression metacharacters; that is, do a simple textual comparison.

       ?pattern
              Search backward in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern.  The search starts at the line immediately before the  top
              line displayed.

              Certain characters are special as in the / command:

              ^N or !
                     Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.

              ^E or *
                     Search  multiple  files.   That  is, if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding a match, the
                     search continues in the previous file in the command line list.

              ^F or @
                     Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the command line list, regardless of what is currently displayed on
                     the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options.

              ^K     As in forward searches.

              ^R     As in forward searches.

       ESC-/pattern
              Same as "/*".

       ESC-?pattern
              Same as "?*".

       n      Repeat  previous  search,  for  N-th line containing the last pattern.  If the previous search was modified by ^N, the search is
              made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern.  If the previous search was modified by ^E, the search continues in the  next
              (or  previous) file if not satisfied in the current file.  If the previous search was modified by ^R, the search is done without
              using regular expressions.  There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ^F or ^K.

       N      Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction.

       ESC-n  Repeat previous search, but crossing file boundaries.  The effect is as if the previous search were modified by *.

       ESC-N  Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries.

       ESC-u  Undo search highlighting.  Turn off highlighting of strings matching the current search pattern.  If highlighting is already off
              because  of  a  previous  ESC-u  command,  turn  highlighting  back on.  Any search command will also turn highlighting back on.
              (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option; in that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on.)

       &pattern
              Display only lines which match the pattern; lines which do not match the pattern are not displayed.  If pattern is empty (if you
              type  & immediately followed by ENTER), any filtering is turned off, and all lines are displayed.  While filtering is in effect,
              an ampersand is displayed at the beginning of the prompt, as a reminder that some lines in the file may be hidden.

              Certain characters are special as in the / command:

              ^N or !
                     Display only lines which do NOT match the pattern.

              ^R     Don't interpret regular expression metacharacters; that is, do a simple textual comparison.

       :e [filename]
              Examine a new file.  If the filename is missing, the "current" file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of files in
              the  command line is re-examined.  A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file.  A pound sign
              (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file.  However, two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced with  a
              single  percent sign.  This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign in the name.  Similarly, two consecutive
              pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign.  The filename is inserted into the command line list of files so that it  can
              be  seen  by  subsequent  :n and :p commands.  If the filename consists of several files, they are all inserted into the list of
              files and the first one is examined.  If the filename contains one or more spaces, the entire filename  should  be  enclosed  in
              double quotes (also see the -" option).

       ^X^V or E
              Same  as  :e.   Warning: some systems use ^V as a special literalization character.  On such systems, you may not be able to use
              ^V.

       :n     Examine the next file (from the list of files given in the command line).  If a number N is specified, the  N-th  next  file  is
              examined.

       :p     Examine the previous file in the command line list.  If a number N is specified, the N-th previous file is examined.

       :x     Examine the first file in the command line list.  If a number N is specified, the N-th file in the list is examined.

       :d     Remove the current file from the list of files.

       t      Go to the next tag, if there were more than one matches for the current tag.  See the -t option for more details about tags.

       T      Go to the previous tag, if there were more than one matches for the current tag.

       = or ^G or :f
              Prints  some  information about the file being viewed, including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom line
              being displayed.  If possible, it also prints the length of the file, the number of lines in the file and  the  percent  of  the
              file above the last displayed line.

       -      Followed  by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below), this will change the setting of that option and print a
              message describing the new setting.  If a ^P (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash, the setting  of  the  option  is
              changed  but  no message is printed.  If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h), or a string value (such as -P
              or -t), a new value may be entered after the option letter.  If no new value  is  entered,  a  message  describing  the  current
              setting is printed and nothing is changed.

       --     Like  the  - command, but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter.  You must press ENTER
              or RETURN after typing the option name.  A ^P immediately after the second dash suppresses printing of a message describing  the
              new setting, as in the - command.

       -+     Followed  by  one  of  the  command  line  option  letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message
              describing the new setting.  (The "-+X" command does the same thing as "-+X" on the command  line.)   This  does  not  work  for
              string-valued options.

       --+    Like the -+ command, but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.

       -!     Followed  by  one  of  the  command line option letters, this will reset the option to the "opposite" of its default setting and
              print a message describing the new setting.  This does not work for numeric or string-valued options.

       --!    Like the -! command, but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.

       _      (Underscore.)  Followed by one of the command line option letters, this will print a message describing the current  setting  of
              that option.  The setting of the option is not changed.

       __     (Double  underscore.)   Like  the  _ (underscore) command, but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.  You
              must press ENTER or RETURN after typing the option name.

       +cmd   Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined.  For example, +G causes less to initially display each
              file starting at the end rather than the beginning.

       V      Prints the version number of less being run.

       q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
              Exits less.

       The following four commands may or may not be valid, depending on your particular installation.

       v      Invokes  an  editor to edit the current file being viewed.  The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL if defined,
              or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined, or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined.  See  also  the  discussion  of
              LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below.

       ! shell-command
              Invokes  a shell to run the shell-command given.  A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current file.
              A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file.  "!!" repeats the last shell  command.   "!"  with  no
              shell  command  simply invokes a shell.  On Unix systems, the shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL, or defaults to
              "sh".  On MS-DOS and OS/2 systems, the shell is the normal command processor.

       | <m> shell-command
              <m> represents any mark letter.  Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command.  The section of the  file  to  be
              piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter.  <m> may also be ^ or $ to indicate
              beginning or end of file respectively.  If <m> is . or newline, the current screen is piped.

       s filename
              Save the input to a file.  This only works if the input is a pipe, not an ordinary file.

OPTIONS

       Command line options are described below.  Most options may be changed while less is running, via the "-" command.

       Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter, or two dashes followed by a long option name.
       A  long  option  name  may  be  abbreviated  as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous.  For example, --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated
       --quit, but not --qui, since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui.  Some long option names are in uppercase, such as --QUIT-
       AT-EOF, as distinct from --quit-at-eof.  Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized; the remainder of the name may
       be in either case.  For example, --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.

       Options are also taken from the environment variable "LESS".  For example, to avoid typing  "less  -options  ..."  each  time  less  is
       invoked, you might tell csh:

       setenv LESS "-options"

       or if you use sh:

       LESS="-options"; export LESS

       On MS-DOS, you don't need the quotes, but you should replace any percent signs in the options string by double percent signs.

       The  environment  variable  is  parsed  before the command line, so command line options override the LESS environment variable.  If an
       option appears in the LESS variable, it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning the command line option with
       "-+".

       For  options like -P or -D which take a following string, a dollar sign ($) must be used to signal the end of the string.  For example,
       to set two -D options on MS-DOS, you must have a dollar sign between them, like this:

       LESS="-Dn9.1$-Ds4.1"

       -? or --help
              This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h  command).   (Depending  on  how  your  shell
              interprets the question mark, it may be necessary to quote the question mark, thus: "-\?".)

       -a or --search-skip-screen
              By  default,  forward  searches  start  at  the  top  of  the displayed screen and backwards searches start at the bottom of the
              displayed screen (except for repeated searches invoked by the n or N commands, which start after or  before  the  "target"  line
              respectively;  see the -j option for more about the target line).  The -a option causes forward searches to instead start at the
              bottom of the screen and backward searches to start at the top of the screen, thus skipping all lines displayed on the screen.

       -A or --SEARCH-SKIP-SCREEN
              Causes all forward searches (not just non-repeated searches) to start just after the target line, and all backward  searches  to
              start just before the target line.  Thus, forward searches will skip part of the displayed screen (from the first line up to and
              including the target line).  Similarly backwards searches will skip the displayed screen from the last line up to and  including
              the target line.  This was the default behavior in less versions prior to 441.

       -bn or --buffers=n
              Specifies  the amount of buffer space less will use for each file, in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes).  By default 64K of buffer
              space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe; see the -B option).  The -b option specifies instead that n kilobytes of
              buffer  space  should  be  used for each file.  If n is -1, buffer space is unlimited; that is, the entire file can be read into
              memory.

       -B or --auto-buffers
              By default, when data is read from a pipe, buffers are allocated automatically as needed.  If a large amount  of  data  is  read
              from  the  pipe,  this  can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated.  The -B option disables this automatic allocation of
              buffers for pipes, so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.  Warning:  use  of
              -B  can  result  in erroneous display, since only the most recently viewed part of the piped data is kept in memory; any earlier
              data is lost.

       -c or --clear-screen
              Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down.  By default, full screen repaints are done by  scrolling  from
              the bottom of the screen.

       -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
              Same as -c, for compatibility with older versions of less.

       -d or --dumb
              The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb; that is, lacks some important capability,
              such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward.  The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of less  on  a
              dumb terminal.

       -Dxcolor or --color=xcolor
              [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed.  x is a single character which selects the type of text whose color is being
              set: n=normal, s=standout, d=bold, u=underlined, k=blink.  color is a pair of numbers separated by a period.  The  first  number
              selects  the  foreground  color  and the second selects the background color of the text.  A single number N is the same as N.M,
              where M is the normal background color.

       -e or --quit-at-eof
              Causes less to automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file.  By default, the only way to exit less is via the  "q"
              command.

       -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
              Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file.

       -f or --force
              Forces  non-regular  files  to  be  opened.   (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file.)  Also suppresses the
              warning message when a binary file is opened.  By default, less will refuse to open non-regular files.  Note that some operating
              systems will not allow directories to be read, even if -f is set.

       -F or --quit-if-one-screen
              Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen.

       -g or --hilite-search
              Normally, less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command.  The -g option changes this behavior to highlight
              only the particular string which was found by the last search command.  This can cause less to  run  somewhat  faster  than  the
              default.

       -G or --HILITE-SEARCH
              The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands.

       -hn or --max-back-scroll=n
              Specifies  a maximum number of lines to scroll backward.  If it is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines, the screen is
              repainted in a forward direction instead.  (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward, -h0 is implied.)

       -i or --ignore-case
              Causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase and lowercase are considered  identical.   This  option  is  ignored  if  any
              uppercase  letters  appear in the search pattern; in other words, if a pattern contains uppercase letters, then that search does
              not ignore case.

       -I or --IGNORE-CASE
              Like -i, but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters.

       -jn or --jump-target=n
              Specifies a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be positioned.  The target  line  is  the  line  specified  by  any
              command  to  search  for  a  pattern, jump to a line number, jump to a file percentage or jump to a tag.  The screen line may be
              specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1, the next is 2, and so on.  The number may be negative to specify a  line
              relative  to  the  bottom  of  the  screen:  the  bottom  line  on  the screen is -1, the second to the bottom is -2, and so on.
              Alternately, the screen line may be specified as a fraction of the height of the screen, starting with a decimal point: .5 is in
              the  middle  of the screen, .3 is three tenths down from the first line, and so on.  If the line is specified as a fraction, the
              actual line number is recalculated if the terminal window is resized, so that the target line remains at the specified  fraction
              of  the  screen  height.   If any form of the -j option is used, forward searches begin at the line immediately after the target
              line, and backward searches begin at the target line, unless changed by -a or -A.  For example, if "-j4"  is  used,  the  target
              line is the fourth line on the screen, so forward searches begin at the fifth line on the screen.

       -J or --status-column
              Displays  a  status  column  at the left edge of the screen.  The status column shows the lines that matched the current search.
              The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect.

       -kfilename or --lesskey-file=filename
              Causes less to open and interpret the named file as a lesskey (1) file.  Multiple -k options may be specified.  If  the  LESSKEY
              or  LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set, or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS), it is also
              used as a lesskey file.

       -K or --quit-on-intr
              Causes less to exit immediately (with status 2) when an interrupt character (usually  ^C)  is  typed.   Normally,  an  interrupt
              character  causes  less  to  stop  whatever it is doing and return to its command prompt.  Note that use of this option makes it
              impossible to return to the command prompt from the "F" command.

       -L or --no-lessopen
              Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below).  This option can be set from  within  less,
              but it will apply only to files opened subsequently, not to the file which is currently open.

       -m or --long-prompt
              Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more), with the percent into the file.  By default, less prompts with a colon.

       -M or --LONG-PROMPT
              Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more.

       -n or --line-numbers
              Suppresses  line  numbers.  The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in some cases, especially with a
              very large input file.  Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem.  Using line numbers means: the line
              number  will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command, and the v command will pass the current line number to the
              editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below).

       -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
              Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display.

       -ofilename or --log-file=filename
              Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed.  This applies only when the input file is a pipe, not  an
              ordinary file.  If the file already exists, less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it.

       -Ofilename or --LOG-FILE=filename
              The -O option is like -o, but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation.

              If  no  log  file  has been specified, the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log file.  Without a file
              name, they will simply report the name of the log file.  The "s" command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less.

       -ppattern or --pattern=pattern
              The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern; that is, it tells less to start at the first occurrence
              of pattern in the file.

       -Pprompt or --prompt=prompt
              Provides  a  way  to  tailor  the  three  prompt  styles  to your own preference.  This option would normally be put in the LESS
              environment variable, rather than being typed in with each less command.  Such an option must either be the last option  in  the
              LESS  variable,  or be terminated by a dollar sign.  -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that string.
              -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt.  -PM changes the long (-M) prompt.  -Ph changes the prompt for the help screen.  -P= changes
              the  message  printed  by the = command.  -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the F command).  All prompt
              strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences.  See the section on PROMPTS for more details.

       -q or --quiet or --silent
              Causes moderately "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the  file  or
              before  the  beginning  of the file.  If the terminal has a "visual bell", it is used instead.  The bell will be rung on certain
              other errors, such as typing an invalid character.  The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases.

       -Q or --QUIET or --SILENT
              Causes totally "quiet" operation: the terminal bell is never rung.

       -r or --raw-control-chars
              Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed.  The default is to display control characters using  the  caret  notation;  for
              example,  a  control-A  (octal  001)  is  displayed as "^A".  Warning: when the -r option is used, less cannot keep track of the
              actual appearance of the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds  to  each  type  of  control  character).   Thus,
              various display problems may result, such as long lines being split in the wrong place.

       -R or --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
              Like  -r,  but  only  ANSI  "color"  escape  sequences are output in "raw" form.  Unlike -r, the screen appearance is maintained
              correctly in most cases.  ANSI "color" escape sequences are sequences of the form:

                   ESC [ ... m

              where the "..." is zero or more color specification characters For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance, ANSI color
              escape  sequences are assumed to not move the cursor.  You can make less think that characters other than "m" can end ANSI color
              escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can  end  a  color  escape
              sequence.   And  you  can  make  less think that characters other than the standard ones may appear between the ESC and the m by
              setting the environment variable LESSANSIMIDCHARS to the list of characters which can appear.

       -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
              Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line.  This is useful when viewing nroff output.

       -S or --chop-long-lines
              Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped rather than folded.  That is, the portion of a long line that  does  not
              fit in the screen width is not shown.  The default is to fold long lines; that is, display the remainder on the next line.

       -ttag or --tag=tag
              The -t option, followed immediately by a TAG, will edit the file containing that tag.  For this to work, tag information must be
              available; for example, there may be a file in the current directory called "tags", which was previously built by ctags  (1)  or
              an  equivalent  command.   If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set, it is taken to be the name of a command compatible
              with global (1), and that command is executed to find the tag.  (See  http://www.gnu.org/software/global/global.html).   The  -t
              option  may  also  be  specified  from  within less (using the - command) as a way of examining a new file.  The command ":t" is
              equivalent to specifying -t from within less.

       -Ttagsfile or --tag-file=tagsfile
              Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".

       -u or --underline-special
              Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters; that is, they are sent to the terminal  when  they
              appear in the input.

       -U or --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
              Causes  backspaces, tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters; that is, they are handled as specified by the
              -r option.

              By default, if neither -u nor -U is given, backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character  are  treated  specially:
              the  underlined  text  is displayed using the terminal's hardware underlining capability.  Also, backspaces which appear between
              two identical characters are treated  specially:  the  overstruck  text  is  printed  using  the  terminal's  hardware  boldface
              capability.   Other  backspaces  are  deleted,  along  with the preceding character.  Carriage returns immediately followed by a
              newline are deleted.  other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option.  Text which is overstruck or  underlined
              can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect.

       -V or --version
              Displays the version number of less.

       -w or --hilite-unread
              Temporarily  highlights  the  first  "new"  line  after  a  forward  movement  of a full page.  The first "new" line is the line
              immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen.  Also highlights the target line after a g or p  command.
              The  highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement.  The entire line is highlighted, unless the -J option is in
              effect, in which case only the status column is highlighted.

       -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
              Like -w, but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line.

       -xn,... or --tabs=n,...
              Sets tab stops.  If only one n is specified, tab stops are set at multiples of n.  If multiple values separated  by  commas  are
              specified,  tab  stops are set at those positions, and then continue with the same spacing as the last two.  For example, -x9,17
              will set tabs at positions 9, 17, 25, 33, etc.  The default for n is 8.

       -X or --no-init
              Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal.  This is sometimes  desirable  if  the
              deinitialization string does something unnecessary, like clearing the screen.

       -yn or --max-forw-scroll=n
              Specifies  a  maximum  number of lines to scroll forward.  If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines, the screen is
              repainted instead.  The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired.  By default,  any  forward
              movement causes scrolling.

       -[z]n or --window=n
              Changes  the  default scrolling window size to n lines.  The default is one screenful.  The z and w commands can also be used to
              change the window size.  The "z" may be omitted for compatibility with some versions of more.  If the number n is  negative,  it
              indicates  n lines less than the current screen size.  For example, if the screen is 24 lines, -z-4 sets the scrolling window to
              20 lines.  If the screen is resized to 40 lines, the scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines.

       -"cc or --quotes=cc
              Changes the filename quoting character.  This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both  spaces  and
              quote  characters.   Followed by a single character, this changes the quote character to that character.  Filenames containing a
              space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes.  Followed by two characters,  changes  the  open
              quote to the first character, and the close quote to the second character.  Filenames containing a space should then be preceded
              by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character.  Note that even after the quote characters  are  changed,
              this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote).

       -~ or --tilde
              Normally  lines  after  end  of  file  are  displayed  as  a single tilde (~).  This option causes lines after end of file to be
              displayed as blank lines.

       -# or --shift
              Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the  RIGHTARROW  and  LEFTARROW  commands.   If  the  number
              specified  is  zero,  it  sets  the default number of positions to one half of the screen width.  Alternately, the number may be
              specified as a fraction of the width of the screen, starting with a decimal point: .5 is half of the screen width, .3  is  three
              tenths  of  the  screen  width,  and  so on.  If the number is specified as a fraction, the actual number of scroll positions is
              recalculated if the terminal window is resized, so that the actual scroll remains at the specified fraction of the screen width.

       --no-keypad
              Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal.  This is sometimes useful if the keypad
              strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner.

       --follow-name
              Normally,  if  the  input  file  is  renamed  while an F command is executing, less will continue to display the contents of the
              original file despite its name change.  If --follow-name is specified, during an F command less  will  periodically  attempt  to
              reopen the file by name.  If the reopen succeeds and the file is a different file from the original (which means that a new file
              has been created with the same name as the original (now renamed) file), less will display the contents of that new file.

       --     A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option arguments.  Any arguments following this are interpreted  as  filenames.
              This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "-" or "+".

       +      If a command line option begins with +, the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less.  For example, +G
              tells less to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning, and +/xyz tells it to start at  the  first  occurrence  of
              "xyz"  in  the  file.   As  a special case, +<number> acts like +<number>g; that is, it starts the display at the specified line
              number (however, see the caveat under the "g" command above).  If the option starts with ++,  the  initial  command  applies  to
              every  file  being  viewed,  not  just the first one.  The + command described previously may also be used to set (or change) an
              initial command for every file.

LINE EDITING

       When entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example, a filename for the  :e  command,  or  the  pattern  for  a  search
       command),  certain  keys can be used to manipulate the command line.  Most commands have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be
       used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard.  (Note that the forms beginning with ESC do not work in some MS-DOS and  Windows
       systems  because  ESC  is  the  line  erase  character.)   Any  of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it with the
       "literal" character, either ^V or ^A.  A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes.

       LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
              Move the cursor one space to the left.

       RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
              Move the cursor one space to the right.

       ^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
              (That is, CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously.)  Move the cursor one word to the left.

       ^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
              (That is, CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.)  Move the cursor one word to the right.

       HOME [ ESC-0 ]
              Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.

       END [ ESC-$ ]
              Move the cursor to the end of the line.

       BACKSPACE
              Delete the character to the left of the cursor, or cancel the command if the command line is empty.

       DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       ^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
              (That is, CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously.)  Delete the word to the left of the cursor.

       ^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
              (That is, CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously.)  Delete the word under the cursor.

       UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
              Retrieve the previous command line.

       DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
              Retrieve the next command line.

       TAB    Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor.  If it matches more than one filename, the first match is entered  into
              the  command line.  Repeated TABs will cycle thru the other matching filenames.  If the completed filename is a directory, a "/"
              is appended to the filename.  (On MS-DOS systems, a "\" is appended.)  The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR  can  be  used  to
              specify a different character to append to a directory name.

       BACKTAB [ ESC-TAB ]
              Like, TAB, but cycles in the reverse direction thru the matching filenames.

       ^L     Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor.  If it matches more than one filename, all matches are entered into the
              command line (if they fit).

       ^U (Unix and OS/2) or ESC (MS-DOS)
              Delete the entire command line, or cancel the command if the command  line  is  empty.   If  you  have  changed  your  line-kill
              character in Unix to something other than ^U, that character is used instead of ^U.

       ^G     Delete the entire command line and return to the main prompt.

KEY BINDINGS

       You  may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey (1) to create a lesskey file.  This file specifies a set of command
       keys and an action associated with each key.  You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING), and  to  set
       environment  variables.   If  the environment variable LESSKEY is set, less uses that as the name of the lesskey file.  Otherwise, less
       looks in a standard place for the lesskey file: On Unix systems, less looks for a lesskey file called  "$HOME/.less".   On  MS-DOS  and
       Windows systems, less looks for a lesskey file called "$HOME/_less", and if it is not found there, then looks for a lesskey file called
       "_less" in any directory specified in the PATH  environment  variable.   On  OS/2  systems,  less  looks  for  a  lesskey  file  called
       "$HOME/less.ini",  and  if  it  is  not  found,  then looks for a lesskey file called "less.ini" in any directory specified in the INIT
       environment variable, and if it not found there, then looks for a lesskey file called "less.ini" in any directory specified in the PATH
       environment variable.  See the lesskey manual page for more details.

       A  system-wide  lesskey  file  may also be set up to provide key bindings.  If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the
       system-wide file, key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in the  system-wide  file.   If  the  environment  variable
       LESSKEY_SYSTEM  is  set, less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file.  Otherwise, less looks in a standard place for the
       system-wide lesskey file: On Unix systems, the system-wide lesskey file is /usr/local/etc/sysless.  (However, if less was built with  a
       different  sysconf  directory  than /usr/local/etc, that directory is where the sysless file is found.)  On MS-DOS and Windows systems,
       the system-wide lesskey file is c:\_sysless.  On OS/2 systems, the system-wide lesskey file is c:\sysless.ini.

INPUT PREPROCESSOR

       You may define an "input preprocessor" for less.  Before less opens a file, it first gives your input preprocessor a chance  to  modify
       the  way the contents of the file are displayed.  An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script), which writes
       the contents of the file to a different file, called the replacement file.  The contents of the replacement file are then displayed  in
       place  of the contents of the original file.  However, it will appear to the user as if the original file is opened; that is, less will
       display the original filename as the name of the current file.

       An input preprocessor receives one command line argument, the original filename,  as  entered  by  the  user.   It  should  create  the
       replacement file, and when finished, print the name of the replacement file to its standard output.  If the input preprocessor does not
       output a replacement filename, less uses the original file, as normal.  The input preprocessor is  not  called  when  viewing  standard
       input.   To  set  up  an  input  preprocessor,  set  the  LESSOPEN  environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input
       preprocessor.  This command line should include one occurrence of the string "%s", which will be replaced  by  the  filename  when  the
       input preprocessor command is invoked.

       When  less  closes  a  file  opened  in such a way, it will call another program, called the input postprocessor, which may perform any
       desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN).  This program receives two command line arguments,
       the  original  filename  as  entered  by  the  user,  and  the name of the replacement file.  To set up an input postprocessor, set the
       LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor.  It may include  two  occurrences  of  the
       string  "%s";  the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replacement file, which was
       output by LESSOPEN.

       For example, on many Unix systems, these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format, but still let  less  view  them
       directly:

       lessopen.sh:
            #! /bin/sh
            case "$1" in
            *.Z) uncompress -
                 if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ ]; then
                      echo /tmp/less.$$
                 else
                      rm -f /tmp/less.$$
                 fi
                 ;;
            esac

       lessclose.sh:
            #! /bin/sh
            rm $2

       To  use  these scripts, put them both where they can be executed and set LESSOPEN="lessopen.sh %s", and LESSCLOSE="lessclose.sh %s %s".
       More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed files, and so on.

       It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to  less,  rather  than  putting  the  data  into  a
       replacement  file.   This  avoids  the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it.  An input preprocessor that works
       this way is called an input pipe.  An input pipe, instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output, writes  the
       entire  contents  of  the  replacement  file  on  its standard output.  If the input pipe does not write any characters on its standard
       output, then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file, as normal.  To use an input pipe, make the  first  character
       in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe.

       For example, on many Unix systems, this script will work like the previous example scripts:

       lesspipe.sh:
            #! /bin/sh
            case "$1" in
            *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/dev/null
                 ;;
            esac

       To  use  this  script,  put  it  where  it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="|lesspipe.sh %s".  When an input pipe is used, a LESSCLOSE
       postprocessor can be used, but it is usually not necessary since there is  no  replacement  file  to  clean  up.   In  this  case,  the
       replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".

       For  compatibility  with  previous  versions  of  less,  the  input preprocessor or pipe is not used if less is viewing standard input.
       However, if the first character of LESSOPEN is a dash (-), the input preprocessor is used on standard input as well as other files.  In
       this  case,  the  dash  is  not  considered  to  be  part  of  the  preprocessor command.  If standard input is being viewed, the input
       preprocessor is passed a file name consisting of a single dash.  Similarly, if the first two characters of LESSOPEN  are  vertical  bar
       and  dash  (|-), the input pipe is used on standard input as well as other files.  Again, in this case the dash is not considered to be
       part of the input pipe command.

NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS

       There are three types of characters in the input file:

       normal characters
              can be displayed directly to the screen.

       control characters
              should not be displayed directly, but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab).

       binary characters
              should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files.

       A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be  considered  normal,  control,  and  binary.   The  LESSCHARSET
       environment variable may be used to select a character set.  Possible values for LESSCHARSET are:

       ascii  BS,  TAB,  NL,  CR, and formfeed are control characters, all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal, and all others are
              binary.

       iso8859
              Selects an ISO 8859 character set.  This is the same as ASCII, except characters between 160  and  255  are  treated  as  normal
              characters.

       latin1 Same as iso8859.

       latin9 Same as iso8859.

       dos    Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.

       ebcdic Selects an EBCDIC character set.

       IBM-1047
              Selects  an  EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services.  This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1.  You get similar results
              by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment.

       koi8-r Selects a Russian character set.

       next   Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers.

       utf-8  Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set.  UTF-8 is special in that it supports multi-byte  characters  in  the
              input file.  It is the only character set that supports multi-byte characters.

       windows
              Selects a character set appropriate for Microsoft Windows (cp 1251).

       In rare cases, it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET.  In this case, the
       environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set.  It should be set to a  string  where  each  character  in  the
       string  represents  one character in the character set.  The character "." is used for a normal character, "c" for control, and "b" for
       binary.  A decimal number may be used for repetition.  For example, "bccc4b." would mean character 0 is binary, 1, 2 and 3 are control,
       4, 5, 6 and 7 are binary, and 8 is normal.  All characters after the last are taken to be the same as the last, so characters 9 through
       255 would be normal.  (This is an example, and does not necessarily represent any real character set.)

       This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:

            ascii     8bcccbcc18b95.b
            dos       8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
            ebcdic    5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
                      9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
            IBM-1047  4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc
                      191.b
            iso8859   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
            koi8-r    8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
            latin1    8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
            next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb

       If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set, but any of the strings "UTF-8", "UTF8", "utf-8"  or  "utf8"  is  found  in  the  LC_ALL,
       LC_CTYPE or LANG environment variables, then the default character set is utf-8.

       If  that string is not found, but your system supports the setlocale interface, less will use setlocale to determine the character set.
       setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.

       Finally, if the setlocale interface is also not available, the default character set is latin1.

       Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video).  Each  such  character  is  displayed  in  caret  notation  if
       possible  (e.g.  ^A  for  control-A).   Caret  notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character.
       Otherwise, the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets.   This  format  can  be  changed  by  setting  the  LESSBINFMT
       environment  variable.   LESSBINFMT  may  begin with a "*" and one character to select the display attribute: "*k" is blinking, "*d" is
       bold, "*u" is underlined, "*s" is standout, and "*n" is normal.  If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "*", normal attribute is  assumed.
       The  remainder  of  LESSBINFMT  is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x, X, o, d, etc.).  For
       example, if LESSBINFMT is "*u[%x]", binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.  The  default  if
       no  LESSBINFMT  is  specified  is  "*s<%02X>".   Warning:  the  result  of  expanding the character via LESSBINFMT must be less than 31
       characters.

       When the character set is utf-8, the LESSUTFBINFMT environment variable acts similarly to LESSBINFMT but it  applies  to  Unicode  code
       points that were successfully decoded but are unsuitable for display (e.g., unassigned code points).  Its default value is "<U+%04lX>".
       Note that LESSUTFBINFMT and LESSBINFMT share their display attribute setting ("*x") so specifying one will affect  both;  LESSUTFBINFMT
       is  read  after  LESSBINFMT  so  its  setting,  if  any, will have priority.  Problematic octets in a UTF-8 file (octets of a truncated
       sequence, octets of a complete but non-shortest form sequence, illegal octets, and stray trailing octets)  are  displayed  individually
       using LESSBINFMT so as to facilitate diagnostic of how the UTF-8 file is ill-formed.

PROMPTS

       The  -P  option  allows  you  to tailor the prompt to your preference.  The string given to the -P option replaces the specified prompt
       string.  Certain characters in the  string  are  interpreted  specially.   The  prompt  mechanism  is  rather  complicated  to  provide
       flexibility, but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings.

       A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is:

       %bX    Replaced  by  the  byte  offset  into  the current input file.  The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which
              specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used.  If the character is a "t", the byte offset of the top line in  the  display
              is used, an "m" means use the middle line, a "b" means use the bottom line, a "B" means use the line just after the bottom line,
              and a "j" means use the "target" line, as specified by the -j option.

       %B     Replaced by the size of the current input file.

       %c     Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen.

       %dX    Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file.  The line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.

       %D     Replaced by the number of pages in the input file, or equivalently, the page number of the last line in the input file.

       %E     Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable if  VISUAL  is  not
              defined).  See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.

       %f     Replaced by the name of the current input file.

       %F     Replaced by the last component of the name of the current input file.

       %i     Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files.

       %lX    Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file.  The line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.

       %L     Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file.

       %m     Replaced by the total number of input files.

       %pX    Replaced by the percent into the current input file, based on byte offsets.  The line used is determined by the X as with the %b
              option.

       %PX    Replaced by the percent into the current input file, based on line numbers.  The line used is determined by the X as with the %b
              option.

       %s     Same as %B.

       %t     Causes any trailing spaces to be removed.  Usually used at the end of the string, but may appear anywhere.

       %x     Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list.

       If any item is unknown (for example, the file size if input is a pipe), a question mark is printed instead.

       The  format  of  the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions.  A question mark followed by a single character acts
       like an "IF": depending on the following character, a condition is evaluated.  If the condition is true, any characters  following  the
       question  mark and condition character, up to a period, are included in the prompt.  If the condition is false, such characters are not
       included.  A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "ELSE": any  characters  between  the
       colon  and  the  period  are  included  in  the  string if and only if the IF condition is false.  Condition characters (which follow a
       question mark) may be:

       ?a     True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far.

       ?bX    True if the byte offset of the specified line is known.

       ?B     True if the size of current input file is known.

       ?c     True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero).

       ?dX    True if the page number of the specified line is known.

       ?e     True if at end-of-file.

       ?f     True if there is an input filename (that is, if input is not a pipe).

       ?lX    True if the line number of the specified line is known.

       ?L     True if the line number of the last line in the file is known.

       ?m     True if there is more than one input file.

       ?n     True if this is the first prompt in a new input file.

       ?pX    True if the percent into the current input file, based on byte offsets, of the specified line is known.

       ?PX    True if the percent into the current input file, based on line numbers, of the specified line is known.

       ?s     Same as "?B".

       ?x     True if there is a next input file (that is, if the current input file is not the last one).

       Any characters other than the special ones (question mark, colon, period, percent, and backslash) become literally part of the  prompt.
       Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash.

       Some examples:

       ?f%f:Standard input.

       This prompt prints the filename, if known; otherwise the string "Standard input".

       ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-...

       This prompt would print the filename, if known.  The filename is followed by the line number, if known, otherwise the percent if known,
       otherwise the byte offset if known.  Otherwise, a dash is printed.  Notice how each question mark has a matching period, and how the  %
       after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash.

       ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x..%t

       This  prints  the filename if this is the first prompt in a file, followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one input
       file.  Then, if we are at end-of-file, the string "(END)" is printed followed by the name of the next file, if there is one.   Finally,
       any trailing spaces are truncated.  This is the default prompt.  For reference, here are the defaults for the other two prompts (-m and
       -M respectively).  Each is broken into two lines here for readability only.

       ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
            ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s...%t

       ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. :
            byte %bB?s/%s. .?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%..%t

       And here is the default message produced by the = command:

       ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. .
            byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..%t

       The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined,  it  is  used  as  the
       command  to  be  executed  when  the v command is invoked.  The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings.  The
       default value for LESSEDIT is:

            %E ?lm+%lm. %f

       Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by a + and the line number, followed by the file name.  If  your  editor  does  not
       accept  the  "+linenumber"  syntax,  or has other differences in invocation syntax, the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this
       default.

SECURITY

       When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1, less runs in a "secure" mode.  This means these features are disabled:

              !      the shell command

              |      the pipe command

              :e     the examine command.

              v      the editing command

              s  -o  log files

              -k     use of lesskey files

              -t     use of tags files

                     metacharacters in filenames, such as *

                     filename completion (TAB, ^L)

       Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode.

COMPATIBILITY WITH MORE

       If the environment variable LESS_IS_MORE is set to 1, or if the program is invoked via a file link named "more", less behaves  (mostly)
       in conformance with the POSIX "more" command specification.  In this mode, less behaves differently in these ways:

       The  -e  option  works  differently.  If the -e option is not set, less behaves as if the -E option were set.  If the -e option is set,
       less behaves as if the -e and -F options were set.

       The -m option works differently.  If the -m option is not set, the  medium  prompt  is  used,  and  it  is  prefixed  with  the  string
       "--More--".  If the -m option is set, the short prompt is used.

       The -n option acts like the -z option.  The normal behavior of the -n option is unavailable in this mode.

       The parameter to the -p option is taken to be a less command rather than a search pattern.

       The LESS environment variable is ignored, and the MORE environment variable is used in its place.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       Environment  variables  may be specified either in the system environment as usual, or in a lesskey (1) file.  If environment variables
       are defined in more than one place, variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over  variables  defined  in  the  system
       environment, which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file.

       COLUMNS
              Sets  the number of columns on the screen.  Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable.  (But if
              you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD, the window system's idea of the screen size takes  precedence
              over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)

       EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command).

       HOME   Name of the user's home directory (used to find a lesskey file on Unix and OS/2 systems).

       HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH
              Concatenation  of the HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH environment variables is the name of the user's home directory if the HOME variable
              is not set (only in the Windows version).

       INIT   Name of the user's init directory (used to find a lesskey file on OS/2 systems).

       LANG   Language for determining the character set.

       LC_CTYPE
              Language for determining the character set.

       LESS   Options which are passed to less automatically.

       LESSANSIENDCHARS
              Characters which may end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "m").

       LESSANSIMIDCHARS
              Characters which may appear between the ESC character  and  the  end  character  in  an  ANSI  color  escape  sequence  (default
              "0123456789;[?!"'#%()*+ ".

       LESSBINFMT
              Format for displaying non-printable, non-control characters.

       LESSCHARDEF
              Defines a character set.

       LESSCHARSET
              Selects a predefined character set.

       LESSCLOSE
              Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor.

       LESSECHO
              Name of the lessecho program (default "lessecho").  The lessecho program is needed to expand metacharacters, such as * and ?, in
              filenames on Unix systems.

       LESSEDIT
              Editor prototype string (used for the v command).  See discussion under PROMPTS.

       LESSGLOBALTAGS
              Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags.  Normally should be set to "global" if your system has the global
              (1) command.  If not set, global tags are not used.

       LESSHISTFILE
              Name  of  the  history  file  used to remember search commands and shell commands between invocations of less.  If set to "-" or
              "/dev/null", a history file is not used.  The default is "$HOME/.lesshst" on Unix systems, "$HOME/_lesshst" on DOS  and  Windows
              systems, or "$HOME/lesshst.ini" or "$INIT/lesshst.ini" on OS/2 systems.

       LESSHISTSIZE
              The maximum number of commands to save in the history file.  The default is 100.

       LESSKEY
              Name of the default lesskey(1) file.

       LESSKEY_SYSTEM
              Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.

       LESSMETACHARS
              List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by the shell.

       LESSMETAESCAPE
              Prefix  which  less  will  add  before each metacharacter in a command sent to the shell.  If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty string,
              commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.

       LESSOPEN
              Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor.

       LESSSECURE
              Runs less in "secure" mode.  See discussion under SECURITY.

       LESSSEPARATOR
              String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion.

       LESSUTFBINFMT
              Format for displaying non-printable Unicode code points.

       LESS_IS_MORE
              Emulate the more (1) command.

       LINES  Sets the number of lines on the screen.  Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM variable.  (But if  you
              have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD, the window system's idea of the screen size takes precedence over
              the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)

       PATH   User's search path (used to find a lesskey file on MS-DOS and OS/2 systems).

       SHELL  The shell used to execute the ! command, as well as to expand filenames.

       TERM   The type of terminal on which less is being run.

       VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).

SEE ALSO

       lesskey(1)

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 1984-2011  Mark Nudelman

       less is part of the GNU project and is free software.  You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either (1)  the  GNU
       General  Public  License  as  published  by  the  Free  Software  Foundation; or (2) the Less License.  See the file README in the less
       distribution for more details regarding redistribution.  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License  along  with
       the  source  for  less;  see  the  file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA.  You should also have received a copy of the Less License; see the file LICENSE.

       less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of  MERCHANTABILITY
       or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.

AUTHOR

       Mark Nudelman <markn@greenwoodsoftware.com>
       Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to bug-less@gnu.org.
       See http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/bugs.html for the latest list of known bugs in less.
       For more information, see the less homepage at
       http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less.

                                                           Version 444: 09 Jun 2011                                                    LESS(1)
 

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