GPG(1)                                                         GNU Privacy Guard                                                        GPG(1)

NAME

       gpg - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS

       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION

       gpg  is  the  OpenPGP  part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool to provide digital encryption and signing services using the
       OpenPGP standard. gpg features complete key management and all bells and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       This is the standalone version of gpg.  For desktop use you should consider using gpg2  ([On some platforms gpg2 is installed under the
       name gpg]).

RETURN VALUE

       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS

       Use  a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to protect your secret key. This passphrase is the weakest part of
       the whole system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring are very easy to  write  and  so  you  should  protect  your
       "~/.gnupg/" directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If  you  are  going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the program knows about it; either give both filenames on the command
       line or use '-'' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY

       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP standard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of
       the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression algorithms. It is important to be aware that not all OpenPGP
       programs implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via the --cipher-algo, --digest-algo, --cert-digest-algo, or
       --compress-algo  options  in  GnuPG,  it  is  possible  to create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the
       intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available,  and  each  supports  a  slightly  different  subset  of  these  optional
       algorithms.   For  example,  until  recently,  no  (unhacked)  version  of PGP supported the BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using
       BLOWFISH simply could not be read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP preferences system that will always do the
       right  thing  and  create  messages that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP program they use. Only override this
       safe default if you really know what you are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences on a given key are invalid for some reason, you are far  better
       off  using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe as they do not force any particular algorithms in violation of
       OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS

       Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one command is allowed.

       gpg may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a reasonable action depending on the type of file it is given  as  input
       (an encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is verified, a file containing keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as a non-option is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by
       using the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command line options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make a signature. This command may be combined with --encrypt (for a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric  (for  a  signed
              and  symmetrically  encrypted  message), or --encrypt and --symmetric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted via a
              secret key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing is chosen by default or  can  be  set  with  the  --local-user  and
              --default-key options.

       --clearsign
              Make  a  clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signature is readable without any special software. OpenPGP software
              is only needed to verify the signature.  Clear text signatures may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform  independence  and
              are  not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for signing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
              --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt data. This option may be combined with --sign (for a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a message that  may
              be  decrypted  via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign and --symmetric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted
              via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default symmetric cipher used is CAST5,  but  may  be  chosen  with  the
              --cipher-algo option. This option may be combined with --sign (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message), --encrypt (for
              a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed  message  that
              may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
              Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output). If the decrypted file is signed, the signature is also verified. This command differs from the default operation,  as
              it never writes to the filename which is included in the file and it rejects files which don't begin with an encrypted message.

       --verify
              Assume  that  the  first  argument is a signed file or a detached signature and verify it without generating any output. With no
              arguments, the signature packet is read from STDIN. If only a sigfile is given, it may be a complete  signature  or  a  detached
              signature,  in  which  case  the  signed  stuff  is expected in a file without the ".sig" or ".asc" extension.  With more than 1
              argument, the first should be a detached signature and the remaining files are the signed stuff. To read the signed  stuff  from
              STDIN,  use  '-''  as the second filename.  For security reasons a detached signature cannot read the signed material from STDIN
              without denoting it in the above way.

       --multifile
              This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for processing on the command line or read from  STDIN  with  each
              filename  on  a  separate line. This allows for many files to be processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --verify may not be used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
              List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given on the command line.  -k is slightly different  from  --list-keys
              in  that  it  allows  only  for  one  argument and takes the second argument as the keyring to search.  This is for command line
              compatibility with PGP 2 and has been removed in gpg2.

              Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other programs as it is likely to change  as  GnuPG  changes.  See  --with-
              colons for a machine-parseable key listing command that is appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List  all  keys  from  the secret keyrings, or just the ones given on the command line. A # after the letters sec means that the
              secret key is not usable (for example, if it was created via --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.

              For each signature listed, there are several flags in between the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give  additional  information
              about each signature. From left to right, they are the numbers 1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L" for a
              local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a nonRevocable signature (see the --edit-key command "nrsign"), "P"
              for  a  signature  that contains a policy URL (see --cert-policy-url), "N" for a signature that contains a notation (see --cert-
              notation), "X" for an eXpired signature (see --ask-cert-expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to  indicate  trust
              signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
              Same  as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that for performance reasons the revocation status of a signing key
              is not shown.

              The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly following the "sig" tag (and  thus  before  the  flags  described
              above  for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature has been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a
              "%" is used if an error occurred while checking the signature (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with their fingerprints. This is  the  same  output  as  --list-keys  but  with  the
              additional  output  of  a  line with the fingerprint. May also be combined with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command is
              given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed too.

       --list-packets
              List only the sequence of packets. This is mainly useful for debugging.

       --card-edit
              Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help" provides an  overview  on  available  commands.  For  a  detailed
              description, please see the Card HOWTO at http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present  a  menu  to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with
              the --card-edit command.

       --delete-key name
              Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This  is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-key name
              Remove key from the secret and public keyring. In batch mode the key must be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same  as  --delete-key,  but  if  a  secret  key  exists,  it  will be removed first. In batch mode the key must be specified by
              fingerprint.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and those registered via option --keyring), or if at least  one  name
              is  given, those of the given name. The new keyring is written to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output. Use together
              with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.  Fingerprints may be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must  be
              used  to  give  the name of this keyserver. Don't send your complete keyring to a keyserver --- select only those keys which are
              new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are given, gpg does nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same as --export, but exports the secret keys instead.  This is normally not very useful and a security risk.  The  second  form
              of the command has the special property to render the secret part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU extension to OpenPGP
              and other implementations can not be expected to successfully import such a key.  See the  option  --simple-sk-checksum  if  you
              want to import such an exported key with an older OpenPGP implementation.

       --import

       --fast-import
              Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring. The fast version is currently just a synonym.

              There are a few other options which control how this command works.  Most notable here is the --import-options merge-only option
              which does not insert new keys but does only the merging of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
              Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver. Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the local keyring. This is useful for updating a  key  with  the
              latest  signatures,  user  IDs,  etc. Calling this with no arguments will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be
              used to give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have preferred keyservers set  (see  --keyserver-options  honor-
              keyserver-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search  the keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of  this  keyserver.   Keyservers  that  support  different  search
              methods  allow  using  the  syntax  specified  in  "How to specify a user ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support
              different search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different installations of GnuPG may support different  protocols  (HTTP,
              FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
              Do  trust  database maintenance. This command iterates over all keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys. The user has to give an estimation of how far  she  trusts  the
              owner  of  the  displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the assigned value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance without user interaction. From time to time the trust database must be  updated  so  that  expired
              keys  or  signatures  and  the resulting changes in the Web of Trust can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG will calculate when this is
              required and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at any time. The processing is identical to that of --update-trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For  use with cron jobs, this command can be used together with --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check is needed. To force a run even in batch mode add the option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup purposes as these values are the only ones which  can't  be  re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update  the trustdb with the ownertrust values stored in files (or STDIN if not given); existing values will be overwritten.  In
              case of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent backup of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file `otrust.txt',  you
              may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When  updating  from  version  1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be used to create signature caches in the keyring. It might be
              handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
              Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given files or STDIN.  With the second form (or a deprecated "*" as algo) digests
              for all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes
              will be emitted.  If used with --armor the output will be base64 encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you  know  what
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
              Pack  or  unpack  an  arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII armor.  This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
              very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
              Generate a new key pair. This command is normally only used interactively.

              There is an experimental feature which allows you to create keys in batch  mode.  See  the  file  `doc/DETAILS'  in  the  source
              distribution on how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key. To revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
              Generate  a  designated  revocation  certificate  for a key. This allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
              someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key management related tasks.  It expects the specification of a key  on  the
              command line.

              uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID with index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make  a  signature on key of user name If the key is not yet signed by the default user (or the users given with -u), the
                     program displays the information of the key again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether it  should  be  signed.
                     This question is repeated for all users specified with -u.

              lsign  Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-exportable and will therefore never be used by others. This may be used
                     to make keys valid only in the local environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revocable and can therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines the notions of certification (like a  regular  signature),  and
                     trust (like the "trust" command). It is generally only useful in distinct communities or groups.

              Note  that  "l"  (for  local / non-exportable), "nr" (for non-revocable, and "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
              "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

              delsig Delete a signature. Note that it is not possible to retract a signature, once it has been send to the public (i.e.  to  a
                     keyserver).  In that case you better use revsig.

              revsig Revoke  a  signature.  For  every  signature  which  has  been  generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG file that will be embedded into the user ID. Note that a  very
                     large  JPEG  will  make  for a very large key. Also note that some programs will display your JPEG unchanged (GnuPG), and
                     some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note that it is not possible to retract a user id, once it has  been  send  to
                     the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag  the  current  user  id  as  the  primary one, removes the primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp of all affected self-signatures one second ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes it primary
                     over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set  a  preferred  keyserver for the specified user ID(s). This allows other users to know where you prefer they get your
                     key from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url for more on how this works.  Setting a value of "none"  removes  an
                     existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set  a  name=value notation for the specified user ID(s). See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a value
                     of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and  setting  a
                     notation name (without the =value) prefixed with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List preferences from the selected user ID. This shows the actual preferences, without including any implied preferences.

              showpref
                     More  verbose preferences listing for the selected user ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the implied
                     preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and Uncompressed (compression) if they are  not  already  included  in  the
                     preference list. In addition, the preferred keyserver and signature notations (if any) are shown.

              setpref string
                     Set  the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or just the selected) user IDs. Calling setpref with no arguments
                     sets the preference list to the default (either built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and calling setpref  with
                     "none"  as the argument sets an empty preference list. Use gpg --version to get a list of available algorithms. Note that
                     while you can change the preferences on an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG does not select keys  via  attribute
                     user IDs so these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When  setting  preferences, you should list the algorithms in the order which you'd like to see them used by someone else
                     when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the end.  Note  that
                     there  are  many factors that go into choosing an algorithm (for example, your key may not be the only recipient), and so
                     the remote OpenPGP application being used to send to you may or may not follow  your  exact  chosen  order  for  a  given
                     message.   It will, however, only choose an algorithm that is present on the preference list of every recipient key.  See
                     also the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the primary key if no subkey has been selected) to a smartcard. The secret key in
                     the  keyring  will be replaced by a stub if the key could be stored successfully on the card and you use the save command
                     later. Only certain key types may be transferred to the card. A sub menu allows you to select on what card to  store  the
                     key.  Note  that  it is not possible to get that key back from the card - if the card gets broken your secret key will be
                     lost unless you have a backup somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore the given file to a card. This  command  may  be  used  to  restore  a  backup  key  (as  generated  during  card
                     initialization) to a new card. In almost all cases this will be the encryption key. You should use this command only with
                     the corresponding public key and make sure that the file given as argument is indeed the backup to  restore.  You  should
                     then  select  2 to restore as encryption key.  You will first be asked to enter the passphrase of the backup key and then
                     for the Admin PIN of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not possible to retract a subkey, once it has been send  to  the  public
                     (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you better use revkey.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change  the  key  or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is selected, the expiration time of this subkey will be changed.
                     With no selection, the key expiration of the primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner trust value for the key. This updates the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

              disable

              enable Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key can not normally be used for encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker to the key. This takes one optional argument: "sensitive". If a designated revoker is marked  as
                     sensitive, it will not be exported by default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

              clean  Compact  (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any user ID that is no longer usable (e.g. revoked, or expired).
                     Then, remove any signatures that are not usable by the trust calculations.  Specifically, this removes any signature that
                     does  not  validate,  any signature that is superseded by a later signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by
                     keys that are not present on the keyring.

              minimize
                     Make the key as small as possible. This removes all signatures from each  user  ID  except  for  the  most  recent  self-
                     signature.

              cross-certify
                     Add  cross-certification  signatures  to signing subkeys that may not currently have them. Cross-certification signatures
                     protect against a subtle attack against signing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new keys generated  have
                     this signature by default, so this option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.

              save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

              quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

              The listing shows you the key with its secondary keys and all user ids.  The primary user id is indicated by a dot, and selected
              keys or user ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The trust value is displayed with the primary key: the  first  is  the  assigned
              owner trust and the second is the calculated trust value. Letters are used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs  a  public  key  with your secret key but marks it as non-exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.

OPTIONS

       gpg features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default configuration.

       Long options can be put in an options file (default "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names will not work - for example, "armor" is  a
       valid  option  for  the  options  file, while "a" is not. Do not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any required
       arguments. Lines with a hash ('#') as the first non-white-space character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too,  but  that
       is not generally useful as the command will execute automatically with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change the configuration and are usually found in the option file.

       --default-key name
              Use name as the default key to sign with. If this option is not used, the default key is the  first  key  found  in  the  secret
              keyring.  Note that -u or --local-user overrides this option.

       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not used and don't ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use the default key as default recipient if option --recipient is not used and don't ask if this is a valid one. The default key
              is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during processing. If used twice, the input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
              Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.  --no-batch disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
              given  on  the  command line, gpg might still need to read from STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
              signature and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do not want to feed data via STDIN, you  should  connect  STDIN  to
              `/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
              Make  sure  that  the  TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.  This option is needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used when  listing  keys  and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
              --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys, --list-secret-keys, and the --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with a no- (after
              the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, and --list-secret-keys to display any photo IDs attached to the key.
                     Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls

                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a given key resides on. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show signature expiration dates (if any) during --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include  signature  subpackets  in  the  key listing. This option can take an optional argument list of the subpackets to
                     list. If no argument is passed, list all subpackets. Defaults to no. This option is only meaningful  when  using  --with-
                     colons along with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options used when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

              show-photos
                     Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued the signature.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the signature being verified. Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations in the signature being verified. Defaults to IETF standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being verified.  Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of the user IDs on the key that issued the signature. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature verification.  Defaults to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show only the primary user ID during signature verification.  That is all the AKA lines as well  as  photo  Ids  are  not
                     shown with the signature verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable  PKA  lookups  to verify sender addresses. Note that PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose
                     information on when and what signatures are verified or to whom data is encrypted. This  is  similar  to  the  "web  bug"
                     described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise  the  trust  in  a signature to full if the signature passes PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if pka-
                     lookups is set.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to 1024 bit.  This is also the default  with  --openpgp.   Note
              that older versions of GnuPG also required this flag to allow the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This  is  the command line that should be run to view a photo ID. "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I"
              does the same, except the file will not be deleted once the viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key  ID,  "%K"  for  the
              long  key ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the extension of the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type of the
              image (e.g. "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character calculated validity of the image being viewed (e.g. "f"), "%V" for  the
              calculated  validity  as a string (e.g.  "full"), and "%%" for an actual percent sign. If neither %i or %I are present, then the
              photo will be supplied to the viewer on standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID 0x%k' STDIN". Note that if your image viewer program is not secure,
              then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets  a  list  of  directories  to  search  for  photo viewers and keyserver helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the
              compiled-in default directory, and photo viewers use the $PATH environment variable.  Note, that on W32  system  this  value  is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME is
              not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent is to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with
              --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring file
              Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate file as the primary public keyring. This means that newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver  --recv-from)  will
              go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use  file instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory (`~/.gnupg' if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME is
              not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set  the  name  of the home directory to dir. If this option is not used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
              recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides  any  home  directory  stated  through  the  environment  variable
              `GNUPGHOME' or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

       --pcsc-driver file
              Use   file   to   access   the   smartcard   reader.  The  current  default  is  `libpcsclite.so.1'  for  GLIBC  based  systems,
              `/System/Library/Frameworks/PCSC.framework/PCSC' for MAC OS  X,  `winscard.dll'  for  Windows  and  `libpcsclite.so'  for  other
              systems.

       --disable-ccid
              Disable  the  integrated  support  for  CCID compliant readers. This allows to fall back to one of the other drivers even if the
              internal CCID driver can handle the reader. Note, that CCID support is only available if libusb was available at build time.

       --reader-port number_or_string
              This option may be used to specify the port of the card terminal. A value of 0 refers to the first serial device; add  32768  to
              access  USB devices. The default is 32768 (first USB device). PC/SC or CCID readers might need a string here; run the program in
              verbose mode to get a list of available readers. The default is then the first reader found.

       --display-charset name
              Set the name of the native character set. This is used to convert some informational strings like user IDs to the  proper  UTF-8
              encoding.   Note  that  this  has  nothing to do with the character set of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not recode
              user-supplied data. If this option is not used, the default character set is determined from the  current  locale.  A  verbosity
              level of 3 shows the chosen set.  Valid values for name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

              utf-8  Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume  that  command  line arguments are given as UTF8 strings. The default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
              encoded in the character set as specified by --display-charset. These options affect all following arguments. Both  options  may
              be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read  options from file and do not try to read them from the default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option is
              ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before an attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
              prevent the creation of a `~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set  compression  level to n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression algorithms. The default is to use the default compression level of
              zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level sets the compression level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm  (defaulting  to  6  as
              well).  This  is  a  different  option from --compress-level since BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory for each additional
              compression level.  -z sets both. A value of 0 for n disables compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files. This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory, but
              also  runs at half the speed. This is useful under extreme low memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed at a
              high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
              than  add to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
              When making a key signature, prompt for a certification level. If this option is not specified, the certification level used  is
              set  via  --default-cert-level. See --default-cert-level for information on the specific levels and how they are used. --no-ask-
              cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to own it but you could not, or did not verify  the  key  at  all.
              This is useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key of a pseudonymous user.

              2  means  you  did  casual  verification of the key. For example, this could mean that you verified that the key fingerprint and
              checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

              3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For example, this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint  with  the
              owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email)  that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just that: examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a certification level below this as invalid. Defaults  to  2,  which
              disregards level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no particular claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume  that  the  specified key (which must be given as a full 8 byte key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
              This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys (or one of them) online but still want to be able to check  the
              validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This  is  the  Web  of Trust combined with trust signatures as used in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust model
                     when creating a new trust database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x and earlier.

              direct Key validity is set directly by the user and not calculated via the Web of Trust.

              always Skip key validation and assume that used keys are always fully trusted. You generally won't use this unless you are using
                     some  external  validation  scheme.  This option also suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with signature checks when
                     there is no evidence that the user ID is bound to the key.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal trust database says. This  is  the  default  model  if  such  a
                     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG  can  automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using this option. This happens when encrypting to an email address
              (in the "user@example.com" form), and there are no user@example.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number  of
              the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              ldap   Using  DNS  Service  Discovery,  check  the domain in question for any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt to
                     locate the key using the PGP Universal method of checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)''.

              keyserver
                     Locate a key using whatever keyserver is defined using the --keyserver option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver option may be used here to query that particular keyserver.

              local  Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism allows to select the order a local key  lookup  is  done.   Thus
                     using '--auto-key-locate local'' is identical to --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This  flag disables the standard local key lookup, done before any of the mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-locate are
                     tried.  The position of this mechanism in the list does not matter.  It is not required if local is also used.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select how to display key IDs. "short" is the traditional 8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less  convenient)
              16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include an "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.

       --keyserver name
              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys, --send-keys, and --search-keys will communicate with to receive
              keys from, send keys to, and search for keys on. The format of the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]'  The  scheme
              is  the  type  of  keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the
              Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of GnuPG  may  have  other  keyserver  types  available  as  well.
              Keyserver  schemes  are  case-insensitive.  After  the keyserver name, optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.
              These are the same as the global --keyserver-options from below, but apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no need to send keys to more than one server.  The  keyserver
              hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the
              opposite meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be used  here  as  well  to  apply  to  importing  (--recv-key)  or
              exporting  (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not all options are available for all keyserver types, some common options
              are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on the keyserver as revoked. Note that not  all
                     keyservers  differentiate  between  revoked  and unrevoked keys, and for such keyservers this option is meaningless. Note
                     also that most keyservers do not have cryptographic verification of key revocations, and so turning this option  off  may
                     result in skipping keys that are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When  searching  for  a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on the keyserver as disabled. Note that this
                     option is not used with HKP keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from a keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that are not
                     on the local keyring.

                     Note  that  this option makes a "web bug" like behavior possible.  Keyserver operators can see which keys you request, so
                     by sending you a message signed by a brand new key (which you naturally  will  not  have  on  your  local  keyring),  the
                     operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you verified the signature.

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When  using  --refresh-keys,  if  the key in question has a preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to
                     refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-retrieve is  set,  and  the  signature  being  verified  has  a  preferred
                     keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.

              honor-pka-record
                     If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being verified has a PKA record, then use the PKA information to fetch the
                     key. Defaults to yes.

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets. Note that this option is not used  with  HKP  keyservers,  as
                     they do not support retrieving keys by subkey id.

              use-temp-files
                     On  most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with the keyserver helper program via pipes, which is the most efficient
                     method. This option forces GnuPG to use temporary files to communicate. On some platforms (such as Win32  and  RISC  OS),
                     this option is always enabled.

              keep-temp-files
                     If  using  `use-temp-files',  do not delete the temp files after using them. This option is useful to learn the keyserver
                     communication protocol by reading the temporary files.

              verbose
                     Tell the keyserver helper program to be more verbose. This  option  can  be  repeated  multiple  times  to  increase  the
                     verbosity level.

              timeout
                     Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to try and perform a keyserver action before giving up. Note that
                     performing multiple actions at the same time uses this timeout value per action.  For example, when  retrieving  multiple
                     keys  via  --recv-keys,  the  timeout  applies  separately to each key retrieval, and not to the --recv-keys command as a
                     whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     Set the proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

              max-cert-size
                     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept keys up to this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.

              debug  Turn on debug output in the keyserver helper program.  Note that the details of debug output depends on  which  keyserver
                     helper  program  is being used, and in turn, on any libraries that the keyserver helper program uses internally (libcurl,
                     openldap, etc).

              check-cert
                     Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.

              ca-cert-file
                     Provide a certificate store to override the system default.  Only necessary if check-cert is enabled, and  the  keyserver
                     is using a certificate that is not present in a system default certificate list.

                     Note  that  depending  on  the SSL library that the keyserver helper is built with, this may actually be a directory or a
                     file.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 3)

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
              Secret keys are integrity protected by  using  a  SHA-1  checksum.  This  method  is  part  of  the  upcoming  enhanced  OpenPGP
              specification but GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against certain attacks.  Old applications don't understand this new
              format, so this option may be used to switch back to the old behaviour. Using this option bears a security risk. Note that using
              this  option  only  takes  effect  when  the  secret  key  is  encrypted - the simplest way to make this happen is to change the
              passphrase on the key (even changing it to the same value is acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching gives a much better performance in key  listings.  However,  if
              you suspect that your public keyring is not save against write modifications, you can use this option to disable the caching. It
              probably does not make sense to disable it because all kind of damage can be done if someone  else  has  write  access  to  your
              public keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
              GnuPG  normally  verifies each signature right after creation to protect against bugs and hardware malfunctions which could leak
              out bits from the secret key. This extra verification needs some time (about 115% for DSA keys), and so this option can be  used
              to disable it.  However, due to the fact that the signature creation needs manual interaction, this performance penalty does not
              matter in most settings.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of Trust has to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb  command
              internally.  This may be a time consuming process. --no-auto-check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
              Try  to use the GnuPG-Agent.  With this option, GnuPG first tries to connect to the agent before it asks for a passphrase. --no-
              use-agent disables this option.

       --gpg-agent-info
              Override the value of the environment variable 'GPG_AGENT_INFO''. This is only used when --use-agent has been given.  Given that
              this option is not anymore used by gpg2, it should be avoided if possible.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release the locks every time a lock is no longer needed. Use this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable  locking  entirely.  This option should be used only in very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process is accessing those files. A bootable floppy with a stand-alone encryption system will probably use this. Improper  usage
              of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This  option  will  cause write errors on the status FD to immediately terminate the process. That should in fact be the default
              but it never worked this way and thus we need an option to enable this, so that the change won't break applications which  close
              their  end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using this option along with --enable-progress-filter may be used to cleanly
              cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With n greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a smartcard gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1  gpg  won't
              at  all  ask  to  insert a card if none has been inserted at startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case an
              application does not know about the smartcard support and waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invocations.  This makes random generation  faster;  however  sometimes
              write operations are not desired. This option can be used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress  the  warning  about unsafe file and home directory (--homedir) permissions. Note that the permission checks that GnuPG
              performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather they simply warn about certain  common  permission  problems.  Do  not
              assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is secure.

              Note  that  the  warning  for  unsafe  --homedir  permissions  cannot be suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an
              attacker to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and  use  this  file  to  suppress  warnings  about  itself.  The  --homedir
              permissions warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
              When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the cross certification "back signature" on the subkey is present and
              valid.  This protects against a subtle attack against subkeys that can sign.  Defaults to --require-cross-certification for gpg.

       --expert

       --no-expert
              Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like signing an  expired  or  revoked  key,  or  certain  potentially
              incompatible  things  like  generating  unusual  key  types.  This  also  disables  certain  warning  messages about potentially
              incompatible actions. As the name implies, this option is for experts only. If you don't fully understand  the  implications  of
              what it allows you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user  id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-
              recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key ID of this user's key. This option helps to hide the receiver of the message and is a
              limited  countermeasure  against  traffic  analysis.  If this option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user ID
              unless --default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same as --recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and may be used with your own user-id as  an  "encrypt-
              to-self".  These  keys are only used when there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by the asked user id.
              No trust checking is performed for these user ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and may be used  with  your  own  user-id  as  a
              hidden  "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by the
              asked user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable the use of all --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to keys.

       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in  email  programs.   Any  time  the  group  name  is  a  recipient  (-r  or
              --recipient),  it  will  be expanded to the values specified. Multiple groups with the same name are automatically merged into a
              single group.

              The values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
              as  two  different  values.  Note  also there is only one level of expansion --- you cannot make an group that points to another
              group. When used from the command line, it may be necessary to quote the argument to this  option  to  prevent  the  shell  from
              treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that this option overrides --default-key.

       --try-secret-key name
              For  hidden  recipients  GPG needs to know the keys to use for trial decryption.  The key set with --default-key is always tried
              first, but this is often not sufficient.  This option allows to set more keys to be used for  trial  decryption.   Although  any
              valid  user-id specification may be used for name it makes sense to use at least the long keyid to avoid ambiguities.  Note that
              gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a lot keys to do the trial decryption.  If you want to stop all further  trial  decryption
              you may use close-window button instead of the cancel button.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't  look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all secret keys in turn to find the right decryption key. This option
              forces the behaviour as used by anonymous recipients (created by using --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient)  and  might  come
              handy in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During decryption skip all anonymous recipients.  This option helps in the case that people use the hidden recipients feature to
              hide there own encrypt-to key from others.  If oneself has many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because all  keys
              are  tried  in  turn  to  decrypt  soemthing  which  was  not really intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is
              currently not possible to decrypt a message which includes real anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.

       --max-output n
              This option sets a limit on the number of bytes that will be generated when processing a file. Since  OpenPGP  supports  various
              levels  of  compression,  it  is  possible  that  the plaintext of a given message may be significantly larger than the original
              OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages, there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will  be
              generated before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits. Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options parameters
              This  is  a space or comma delimited string that gives options for importing keys. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is not generally useful unless a shared keyring  scheme  is  being
                     used.  Defaults to no.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During  import,  attempt  to repair the damage caused by the PKS keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with
                     multiple subkeys. Note that this cannot completely repair the damaged  key  as  some  crucial  data  is  removed  by  the
                     keyserver,  but  it  does at least give you back one subkey. Defaults to no for regular --import and to yes for keyserver
                     --recv-keys.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After import, compact (remove all signatures except the self-signature) any user IDs  from  the  new  key  that  are  not
                     usable.   Then, remove any signatures from the new key that are not usable.  This includes signatures that were issued by
                     keys that are not present on the keyring. This option is the same as running the --edit-key command "clean" after import.
                     Defaults to no.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signatures except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
                     option is the same as running the --edit-key command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for exporting keys. Options can be prepended with a `no-'  to  give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow  exporting  key  signatures marked as "local". This is not generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being
                     used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting. This is useful to export keys if they are going to be used by  an
                     OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute user IDs. Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker information that was marked as "sensitive". Defaults to no.

              export-reset-subkey-passwd
                     When  using  the  --export-secret-subkeys  command, this option resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to empty.
                     This is useful when the exported subkey is to be used on an unattended machine where  a  passphrase  doesn't  necessarily
                     make sense. Defaults to no.

              export-clean
                     Compact  (remove  all  signatures  from)  user IDs on the key being exported if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do not
                     export any signatures that are not usable. This includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not present on  the
                     keyring.  This  option  is the same as running the --edit-key command "clean" before export except that the local copy of
                     the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signatures except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
                     option  is  the  same as running the --edit-key command "minimize" before export except that the local copy of the key is
                     not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
              Print key listings delimited by colons. Note that the output will be  encoded  in  UTF-8  regardless  of  any  --display-charset
              setting.  This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts and other programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details
              of this format are documented in the file `doc/DETAILS', which is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in --with-colon listing mode and print all timestamps as seconds since 1970-01-01.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of the output and may be used together with another command.

       --with-keygrip
              Include the keygrip in the key listings.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
              Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical text form with standard "CRLF" line endings.  This  also  sets
              the  necessary  flags  to inform the recipient that the encrypted or signed data is text and may need its line endings converted
              back to whatever the local system uses. This option is useful when communicating between two platforms that have different  line
              ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc). --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

              If  -t (but not --textmode) is used together with armoring and signing, this enables clearsigned messages. This kludge is needed
              for command-line compatibility with command-line versions of PGP; normally you would use --sign or  --clearsign  to  select  the
              type of the signature.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
              OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4 signatures but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures on
              key material. This option forces v3 signatures for signatures on data.  Note that this option implies  --no-ask-sig-expire,  and
              unsets  --sig-policy-url,  --sig-notation,  and --sig-keyserver-url, as these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.  --no-
              force-v3-sigs disables this option.  Defaults to no.

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
              Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This option also changes the default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys  from  MD5  to
              SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this option.

       --force-mdc
              Force  the  use  of  encryption  with  a  modification  detection code. This is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a
              blocksize greater than 64 bits), or if all of the recipient keys indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable  to
              a message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as GPG
              will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is also used for the
              --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences, as GPG
              will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.  The most highly ranked digest algorithm in this  list  is  also
              used when signing without encryption (e.g. --clearsign or --sign). The default value is SHA-1.

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set  the  list  of personal compression preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use
              none to set no preference at all.  This allows  the  user  to  safely  override  the  algorithm  chosen  by  the  recipient  key
              preferences,  as  GPG  will  only  select  an  algorithm  that  is usable by all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression
              algorithm in this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to consider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use name as the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.  The default cipher  is  CAST5.  This  cipher  is  also  used  for
              conventional encryption if --personal-cipher-preferences and --cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.  The default algorithm is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects  how  passphrases  are mangled. If n is 0 a plain passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1 adds a salt to
              the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole process a number of times (see --s2k-count).  Unless --rfc1991 is  used,
              this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many times the passphrase mangling is repeated.  This value may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive, and the
              default is 65536.  Note that not all values in the 1024-65011712 range are legal and if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will
              round up to the nearest legal value.  This option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These  options  control what GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these options may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of
       this is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before  using  one  of  these
       options.

       --gnupg
              Use  standard  GnuPG  behavior.  This  is essentially OpenPGP behavior (see --openpgp), but with some additional workarounds for
              common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This is the default option, so it is not generally  needed,  but  it
              may be useful to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset  all  packet,  cipher  and  digest  options to strict OpenPGP behavior. Use this option to reset all previous options like
              --s2k-*, --cipher-algo, --digest-algo and --compress-algo to OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880  behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
              --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440 behavior.

       --rfc1991
              Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.

       --pgp2 Set  up  all  options  to be as PGP 2.x compliant as possible, and warn if an action is taken (e.g. encrypting to a non-RSA key)
              that will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to handle. Note that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP  2.6.2'.  There  are
              other versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT release is a good common baseline.

              This option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-
              algo MD5 --compress-algo ZIP. It also disables --textmode when encrypting.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This restricts  you  to  the  ciphers  IDEA  (if  the  IDEA  plugin  is
              installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160, and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
              --throw-keyids, and making signatures with signing subkeys as PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This option implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is identical to --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and  the
              list of allowable ciphers is expanded to add AES128, AES192, AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8 is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than previous versions of
              PGP, so all this does is disable --throw-keyids and set --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for the  SHA224,
              SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes  the behaviour of some commands. This is like --dry-run but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
              extended in the future. Currently it only skips the actual  decryption  pass  and  therefore  enables  a  fast  listing  of  the
              encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All  of  the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
                     tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

       How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not specified and may change with newer releases of this  program.  They
       are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042).

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-ccid-driver
              Enable debug output from the included CCID driver for smartcards.  Note that this option is only available on some system.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This  option  is  only useful for testing; it sets the system time back or forth to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows frontends to display a progress indicator  while  gpg  is  processing
              larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written to file file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
              Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written to file file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor n. This is most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status messages are
              needed to separate out the various subpackets from the stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string in clear text signatures and ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The  default  behavior
              is  not to use a comment string. --comment may be repeated multiple times to get multiple comment strings. --no-comments removes
              all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single comment below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail programs
              wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all other header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.  --no-emit-version disables this option.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
              Put the name value pair into the signature as notation data.  name must consist only of printable characters or spaces, and must
              contain a '@' character in the form keyname@domain.example.com  (substituting  the  appropriate  keyname  and  domain  name,  of
              course).   This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved notation namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@' check.
              value may be any printable string; it will be encoded in UTF8, so you should check that your --display-charset is set correctly.
              If  you  prefix  name  with  an  exclamation  mark (!), the notation data will be flagged as critical (rfc2440:5.2.3.15). --sig-
              notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-notation sets  a  notation  for  key  signatures  (certifications).  --set-
              notation sets both.

              There  are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k" will be expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fingerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the key
              making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key making the
              signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fingerprint of the primary key of the key making the signature, "%c" into the
              signature  count  from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful when making a
              key signature (certification), and %c is only meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
              Use string as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc2440:5.2.3.19).  If you prefix it with an exclamation mark  (!),  the  policy  URL
              packet  will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a policy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
              for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  keyserver  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --set-filename string
              Use  string as the filename which is stored inside messages.  This overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename of
              the file being encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set the `for your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless  the  --output  option  is
              given,  and  PGP  to  use  a "secure viewer" with a claimed Tempest-resistant font to display the message. This option overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This can be a dangerous  option  as  it  allows  to  overwrite  files.
              Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use  name  as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the command --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this is
              not used the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences stored with the key. In general, you do  not  want  to  use  this
              option  as  it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --personal-cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same
              thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm. Running the program with the command --version yields a list of supported  algorithms.
              In  general,  you do not want to use this option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-preferences
              is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compression. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which  is  used  by  PGP.
              "bzip2"  is  a  more  modern  compression  scheme that can compress some things better than zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
              memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed" or "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
              default  behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences to see which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else fails,
              ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the compression window size is not limited to  8k.  BZIP2  may  give  even
              better  compression results than that, but will use a significantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompressing.
              This may be significant in low memory situations. Note, however, that PGP (all versions) only supports  ZIP  compression.  Using
              any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the message unreadable with PGP. In general, you do not want to use this option
              as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-compress-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm used when signing a key. Running the program with the command --version yields  a  list
              of  supported algorithms. Be aware that if you choose an algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations do not,
              then some users will not be able to use the key signatures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still
              get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never  allow  the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given name will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
              still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
              Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This helps to hide the receivers of  the  message  and  is  a  limited
              countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the message can check
              whether one of the other recipients is the one he suspects.])  On the receiving side, it may slow down  the  decryption  process
              because all available secret keys must be tried.  --no-throw-keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same as
              using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that they can be used for patch files. You should not send  such  an
              armored  file  via  email  because  all spaces and line endings are hashed too. You can not use this option for data which has 5
              dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this. A special armor header line tells  GnuPG  about  this  cleartext
              signature option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with  "From " to ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special way when
              creating cleartext signatures to prevent the mail system from breaking the signature. Note that all other  PGP  versions  do  it
              this way too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines disables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify  how  many  times  gpg  will  request  a  new passphrase be repeated.  This is useful for helping memorize a passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line will be read from file descriptor n. If you use  0  for  n,  the
              passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can only be used if only one passphrase is supplied.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the  passphrase  from  file  file.  Only  the  first  line  will be read from file file. This can only be used if only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file is of questionable security if other users can read this  file.
              Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

       --passphrase string
              Use  string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very questionable
              security on a multi-user system. Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.  If this option is enabled, user  input  on  questions  is  not
              expected  from the TTY but from the given file descriptor. It should be used together with --status-fd. See the file doc/DETAILS
              in the source distribution for details on how to use it.

       --command-file file
              Same as --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user IDs which are not self-signed. This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user  ID
              is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable  all  checks  on  the  form  of  the user ID while generating a new one. This option should only be used in very special
              environments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and  signatures  have  plausible  values.  However,  sometimes  a
              signature  seems  to  be  older  than  the  key  due  to clock problems. This option makes these checks just a warning. See also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the future.  This option allows the use of such keys and thus exhibits
              the  pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option unless you there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-conflict
              for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum against transmission errors. Occasionally the  CRC  gets  mangled
              somewhere  on the transmission channel but the actual content (which is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still okay.
              This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a warning.  This can be useful if a message  is  partially  corrupt,
              but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the corrupt message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection failure
              may also mean that the message was tampered with intentionally by an attacker.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note that GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so  if  you  use
              this  option  and  do  not  provide  alternate keyrings via --keyring or --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the default
              public or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
              Skip the signature verification step. This may be used to make the decryption  faster  if  the  signature  verification  is  not
              needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and print the public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes  the  output  of the list commands to work faster; this is achieved by leaving some parts empty. Some applications don't
              need the user ID and the trust information given in the listings. By using this options they can get a faster listing. The exact
              behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one message. See --override-session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal
              the content of one specific message without compromising all messages ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT UNLESS YOU
              ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
              Don't use the public key but the session key string. The format of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
              key. This option is normally not used but comes handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content of an encrypted  message;
              using this option you can do this without handing out the secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When  making  a  data  signature,  prompt  for  an expiration time. If this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
              --default-sig-expire is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables this option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The default expiration time to use for signature expiration. Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number  followed  by  the
              letter  d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years),
              or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option  is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
              --default-cert-expire is used. --no-ask-cert-expire disables this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The  default  expiration time to use for key signature expiration.  Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by
              the letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two  months,  or  "5y"  for  five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow  processing  of  multiple  OpenPGP  messages  contained  in  a single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not
              prepared to deal with multiple messages being processed together, so this option defaults to no.   Note  that  versions  of  GPG
              prior to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This  options  enables  a mode in which filenames of the form `-&n', where n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the file
              descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user read/write only. Use this option only if you really know what  you
              are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set  the  list of default preferences to string. This preference list is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
              in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This keyserver will be used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature  on  a
              key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display  various  internal  configuration  parameters of GnuPG. This option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to
              perform tasks, and is thus not generally useful. See the file `doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution for the details of  which
              configuration items may be listed. --list-config is only usable with --with-colons set.

       --gpgconf-list
              This command is similar to --list-config but in general only internally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This  is more or less dummy action.  However it parses the configuration file and returns with failure if the configuration file
              would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --load-extension name
              Load an extension module. If name does not contain a slash it is searched for in the directory configured when GnuPG  was  built
              (generally "/usr/local/lib/gnupg"). Extensions are not generally useful anymore, and the use of this option is deprecated.

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
              Causes  --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, --list-secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo ID
              attached to the key, if any. See also --photo-viewer. These options are deprecated. Use --list-options  [no-]show-photos  and/or
              --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display  the  keyring  name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --ctapi-driver file
              Use file to access the smartcard reader. The current default is `libtowitoko.so'.  Note  that  the  use  of  this  interface  is
              deprecated; it may be removed in future releases.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
              Show  signature  notations  in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as well as when verifying a signature with a notation in
              it. These options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-notation and/or --verify-options [no-]show-notation instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
              Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as well as when verifying a signature with  a  policy  URL  in  it.
              These options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-policy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.

EXAMPLES

       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
              Verify  the  signature of the file but do not output the data. The second form is used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
              the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and are the signed data; if this is not given,  the  name  of  the  file
              holding  the signed data is constructed by cutting off the extension (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
              filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID

       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them are only valid for gpg others are only good for gpgsm.   Here  is
       the entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This  format  is  deduced from the length of the string and its content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids is just a shortcut,  for  all  automated  processing  the  fingerprint
              should be used.

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol.  You  can  see
              the long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This  format  is  deduced  from  the length of the string and its content or the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
              fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.  This avoids any ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key
              IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       (gpgsm also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits because this is the  de-facto  standard  on  how  to  present  X.509
       fingerprints.)

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This is indicated by enclosing the email address in the usual way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
              All  words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words are any
              sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all characters with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use  the
              string  printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one as been reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded  DN  of
              the issuer.  This should return the Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This  is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the serial number, then followed by a slash and
              the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This  is  the default mode but applications may want to explicitly indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called  local-id.   It
       is not anymore used and there should be no conflict when used with X.509 stuff.

       Using  the  RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possible to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't
       have to do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta data.

FILES

       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current  home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This  is  the  standard configuration file read by gpg on startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes
              may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.  This default name may be changed on the command  line  (see:  [option
              --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note  that  on  larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files into the directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created
       users start up with a working configuration.

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They all live  in  in  the  current  home  directory  (see:  [option
       --homedir]).  Only the gpg may modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The  trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is better to backup the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-
              ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
              The skeleton options file.

       /usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/
              Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              Used to locate the gpg-agent.  This is only honored when --use-agent is set.  The value consists of 3  colon  delimited  fields:
              The  first  is  the path to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of the gpg-agent and the protocol version which should be
              set to 1. When starting the gpg-agent as described in its documentation, this variable is set to the correct value.  The  option
              --gpg-agent-info can be used to override it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart  from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to override the language selection done through the Registry.  If used
              and  set  to  a  valid  and  available  language   name   (langid),   the   file   with   the   translation   is   loaded   from
              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.   Here  gpgdir  is the directory out of which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded
              the Registry is tried and as last resort the native Windows locale system is used.

BUGS

       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This is  necessary  to  lock  memory  pages.  Locking  memory  pages
       prevents the operating system from writing memory pages (which may contain passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get
       no warning message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking without being root. The program drops  root  privileges
       as soon as locked memory is allocated.

       Note  also  that  some  systems  (especially  laptops)  have  the  ability  to  ``suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ``safe sleep'' or
       ``hibernate'').  This writes all memory to disk before going into a low power or even powered off mode.  Unless measures are  taken  in
       the operating system to protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you report a bug you should first search the mailing list archives for similar problems and second check whether such a bug has
       already been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO

       gpgv(1),

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed  at  your
       site, the command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.
 

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