DUPLICITY(1)                                                     User Manuals                                                     DUPLICITY(1)


       duplicity - Encrypted backup using rsync algorithm


       duplicity [options] source_directory target_url

       duplicity [options] source_url target_directory

       duplicity full [options] source_directory target_url

       duplicity incremental [options] source_directory target_url

       duplicity restore [options] source_url target_directory

       duplicity verify [options] source_url target_directory

       duplicity collection-status [options] target_url

       duplicity list-current-files [options] target_url

       duplicity cleanup [options] [--force] target_url

       duplicity remove-older-than time [options] [--force] target_url

       duplicity remove-all-but-n-full count [options] [--force] target_url

       duplicity remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full count [options] [--force] target_url


       Duplicity  incrementally  backs  up  files and directory by encrypting tar-format volumes with GnuPG and uploading them to a remote (or
       local) file server.  Currently local, ftp, sftp/scp, rsync, WebDAV, WebDAVs, Google Docs, HSi and Amazon  S3  backends  are  available.
       Because  duplicity  uses  librsync,  the  incremental archives are space efficient and only record the parts of files that have changed
       since the last backup.  Currently duplicity supports deleted files, full Unix permissions, directories, symbolic  links,  fifos,  etc.,
       but not hard links.

       If  you  are  backing up the root directory /, remember to --exclude /proc, or else duplicity will probably crash on the weird stuff in


       Here is an example of a backup, using scp to back up /home/me to some_dir on the other.host machine:

              duplicity /home/me scp://uid@other.host/some_dir

       If the above is run repeatedly, the first will be a full backup, and subsequent ones will be incremental.  To force a full backup,  use
       the full action:

              duplicity full /home/me scp://uid@other.host/some_dir

       Now suppose we accidentally delete /home/me and want to restore it the way it was at the time of last backup:

              duplicity scp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me

       Duplicity  enters  restore mode because the URL comes before the local directory.  If we wanted to restore just the file "Mail/article"
       in /home/me as it was three days ago into /home/me/restored_file:

              duplicity -t 3D --file-to-restore Mail/article scp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me/restored_file

       The following command compares the files we backed up, so see what has changed since then:

              duplicity verify scp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me

       Finally, duplicity recognizes several include/exclude options.  For instance, the following will backup the root directory, but exclude
       /mnt, /tmp, and /proc:

              duplicity --exclude /mnt --exclude /tmp --exclude /proc / file:///usr/local/backup

       Note  that  in  this  case the destination is the local directory /usr/local/backup.  The following will backup only the /home and /etc
       directories under root:

              duplicity --include /home --include /etc --exclude '**' / file:///usr/local/backup

       Duplicity can also access a repository via ftp.  If a user name is given, the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD is  read  to  determine
       the password:

              FTP_PASSWORD=mypassword duplicity /local/dir ftp://user@other.host/some_dir


              Delete  the  extraneous  duplicity  files on the given backend.  Non-duplicity files, or files in complete data sets will not be
              deleted.  This should only be necessary after a duplicity session fails or is aborted prematurely.  Note that  --force  will  be
              needed to delete the files rather than just list them.

              Summarize the status of the backup repository by printing the chains and sets found, and the number of volumes in each.

       full   Indicate full backup.  If this is set, perform full backup even if signatures are available.

       incr   If  this  is  requested  an  incremental backup will be performed.  Duplicity will abort if old signatures cannot be found.  The
              default is to switch to full backup under these conditions.

              Lists the files currently backed up in the archive.  The information will be extracted from the signature files, not the archive
              data  itself.   Thus  the whole archive does not have to be downloaded, but on the other hand if the archive has been deleted or
              corrupted, this command may not detect it.

              Note: the Debian version of duplicity automatically runs a cleanup --extra-clean whenever old backup sets are removed  (i.e.  if
              one  of  the  remove  commands is run with the --force option present and if something removable is found). This is to limit the
              amount of old outdated material that otherwise accumulates in the archive dir.

       remove-older-than time
              Delete all backup sets older than the given time.  Old backup sets will not be deleted if backup sets newer than time depend  on
              them.   See  the  TIME FORMATS section for more information.  Note, this action cannot be combined with backup or other actions,
              such as cleanup.  Note also that --force will be needed to delete the files rather than just list them.

       remove-all-but-n-full count
              Delete all backups sets that are older than the count:th last full backup (in other words, keep the last count full backups  and
              associated  incremental sets).  count must be larger than zero. A value of 1 means that only the single most recent backup chain
              will be kept.  Note that --force will be needed to delete the files rather than just list them.

       remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full count
              Delete incremental sets of all backups sets that are older than the count:th last full backup (in other  words,  keep  only  old
              full  backups  and  not  their increments).  count must be larger than zero. A value of 1 means that only the single most recent
              backup chain will be kept intact.  Note that --force will be needed to delete the files rather than just list them.

              The note regarding automatic cleanups above also applies to remove-all-but-n-full.

       verify Enter verify mode instead of restore.  If the --file-to-restore option is given, restrict verify  to  that  file  or  directory.
              duplicity  will  exit with a non-zero error level if any files are different.  On verbosity level 4 or higher, log a message for
              each file that has changed.


              Do not abort on attempts to use the same archive dir or remote backend to back up different directories.   duplicity  will  tell
              you if you need this switch.

       --archive-dir path
              The  archive  directory.   NOTE:  This  option  changed  in  0.6.0.   The  archive directory is now necessary in order to manage
              persistence for current and future enhancements.  As such, this option is now used only to change the location  of  the  archive
              directory.  The archive directory should not be deleted, or duplicity will have to recreate it from the remote repository (which
              may require decrypting the backup contents).

              When backing up or restoring, this option specifies that the local archive directory is to be created in path.  If  the  archive
              directory is not specified, the default will be to create the archive directory in ~/.cache/duplicity/.

              The  archive  directory can be shared between backups to multiple targets, because a subdirectory of the archive dir is used for
              individual backups (see --name ).

              The combination of archive directory and backup name must be unique in order to separate the data of different backups.

              The interaction between the --archive-dir and the --name options allows for four possible combinations for the location  of  the
              archive dir:

              1.     neither specified (default)

              2.     --archive-dir=/arch, no --name

              3.     no --archive-dir, --name=foo

              4.     --archive-dir=/arch, --name=foo

              (EXPERIMENTAL) Perform file uploads asynchronously in the background, with respect to volume creation. This means that duplicity
              can upload a volume while, at the same time, preparing the next volume for upload. The intended end-result is a  faster  backup,
              because  the local CPU and your bandwidth can be more consistently utilized. Use of this option implies additional need for disk
              space in the temporary storage location; rather than needing to store only one  volume  at  a  time,  enough  storage  space  is
              required to store two volumes.

              Calculate what would be done, but do not perform any backend actions

       --encrypt-key key
              When  backing  up,  encrypt  to  the  given  public  key, instead of using symmetric (traditional) encryption.  Can be specified
              multiple times.

       --encrypt-secret-keyring filename
              This option can only be used with --encrypt-key, and changes the path to the secret keyring for the encrypt key to filename This
              keyring  is  not  used  when creating a backup. If not specified, the default secret keyring is used which is usually located at

       --encrypt-sign-key key
              Convenience parameter. Same as --encrypt-key key --sign-key key.

       --exclude shell_pattern
              Exclude the file or files matched by shell_pattern.  If a directory is matched, then files under that  directory  will  also  be
              matched.  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

              Exclude  all  device files.  This can be useful for security/permissions reasons or if rdiff-backup is not handling device files

       --exclude-filelist filename
              Excludes the files listed in filename.  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

              Like --exclude-filelist, but the list of files will be read from standard input.   See  the  FILE  SELECTION  section  for  more

       --exclude-globbing-filelist filename
              Like  --exclude-filelist  but  each  line  of  the  filelist  will  be  interpreted according to the same rules as --include and

       --exclude-if-present filename
              Exclude directories if filename is present. This option needs to come before any other include or exclude options.

              Exclude files on file systems (identified by device number) other than the file system the root of the source directory is on.

       --exclude-regexp regexp
              Exclude files matching the given regexp.  Unlike the --exclude option, this option does  not  match  files  in  a  directory  it
              matches.  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

              When  cleaning  up,  be more aggressive about saving space.  For example, this may delete signature files for old backup chains.
              See the cleanup argument for more information.

       --file-to-restore path
              This option may be given in restore mode, causing only path to be restored instead of the entire contents of the backup archive.
              path should be given relative to the root of the directory backed up.

       --full-if-older-than time
              Perform  a  full  backup  if  an incremental backup is requested, but the latest full backup in the collection is older than the
              given time.  See the TIME FORMATS section for more information.

              Proceed even if data loss might result.  Duplicity will let the user know when this option is required.

              Use passive (PASV) data connections.  The default is to use passive, but to fallback to regular if the passive connection  fails
              or times out.

              Use regular (PORT) data connections.

       --gio  Use the GIO backend and interpret any URLs as GIO would.

              Try  to  ignore  certain errors if they happen. This option is only intended to allow the restoration of a backup in the face of
              certain problems that would otherwise cause the backup to fail. It is not ever recommended to use this option unless you have  a
              situation  where you are trying to restore from backup and it is failing because of an issue which you want duplicity to ignore.
              Even then, depending on the issue, this option may not have an effect.

              Please note that while ignored errors will be logged, there will be no summary at the end of the operation to tell you what  was
              ignored, if anything. If this is used for emergency restoration of data, it is recommended that you run the backup in such a way
              that you can revisit the backup log (look for lines containing the string IGNORED_ERROR).

              If you ever have to use this option for reasons that are not understood or understood but not your  own  responsibility,  please
              contact duplicity maintainers. The need to use this option under production circumstances would normally be considered a bug.

       --imap-mailbox option
              Allows  you  to  specify a different mailbox.  The default is "INBOX".  Other languages may require a different mailbox than the

       --gpg-options options
              Allows you to pass options to gpg encryption.  The options list should be of the form "opt1=parm1 opt2=parm2" where  the  string
              is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options.

       --include shell_pattern
              Similar  to  --exclude  but  include matched files instead.  Unlike --exclude, this option will also match parent directories of
              matched files (although not necessarily their contents).  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --include-filelist filename
              Like --exclude-filelist, but include the listed files instead.  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

              Like --include-filelist, but read the list of included files from standard input.

       --include-globbing-filelist filename
              Like --include-filelist but each line of the filelist will  be  interpreted  according  to  the  same  rules  as  --include  and

       --include-regexp regexp
              Include  files matching the regular expression regexp.  Only files explicitly matched by regexp will be included by this option.
              See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --log-fd number
              Write specially-formatted versions of output messages to the specified file descriptor.  The  format  used  is  designed  to  be
              easily consumable by other programs.

       --log-file filename
              Write  specially-formatted  versions  of  output  messages  to  the  specified  file.   The format used is designed to be easily
              consumable by other programs.

       --name symbolicname
              Set the symbolic name of the backup being operated on. The intent is to use a separate name for each logically distinct  backup.
              For example, someone may use "home_daily_s3" for the daily backup of a home directory to Amazon S3. The structure of the name is
              up to the user, it is only important that the names be distinct. The  symbolic  name  is  currently  only  used  to  affect  the
              expansion  of --archive-dir , but may be used for additional features in the future. Users running more than one distinct backup
              are encouraged to use this option.

              If not specified, the default value is a hash of the backend URL.

              Do not use GnuPG to encrypt files on remote system.  Instead just write gzipped volumes.

              By default duplicity will print statistics about the current session after a  successful  backup.   This  switch  disables  that

              Use  nulls  (\0)  instead  of  newlines (\n) as line separators, which may help when dealing with filenames containing newlines.
              This affects the expected format of the files specified by the --{include|exclude}-filelist[-stdin]  switches  as  well  as  the
              format of the directory statistics file.

              On  restore  always  use  the  numeric  uid/gid  from  the  archive  and not the archived user/group names, which is the default
              behaviour.  Recommended for restoring from live cds which might have the users with identical names but different uids/gids.

       --num-retries number
              Number of retries to make on errors before giving up.

              Use the old filename format (incompatible with Windows/Samba) rather than the new filename format.

       --rename orig new
              Treats the path orig in the backup as if it were the path new.  Can be passed multiple times.  An example:

              duplicity restore --rename Documents/metal Music/metal scp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me

       --rsync-options options
              Allows you to pass options to the rsync backend.  The options list should be of  the  form  "opt1=parm1  opt2=parm2"  where  the
              option  string  is  quoted  and the only spaces allowed are between options. The option string will be passed verbatim to rsync,
              after any internally generated option designating the remote port to use.  Here is a possibly useful example:

              duplicity --rsync-options="--partial-dir=.rsync-partial" /home/me scp://uid@other.host/some_dir

              When using the Amazon S3 backend, create buckets in Europe instead of the default (requires --s3-use-new-style ). Also  see  the
              EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS section.

              Don't use SSL for connections to S3.

              This may be much faster, at some cost to confidentiality.

              With  this  option,  anyone  who  can  observe  traffic  between  your  computer and S3 will be able to tell: that you are using
              Duplicity, the name of the bucket, your AWS Access Key ID, the increment dates and the amount of data in each increment.

              This option affects only the connection, not the GPG encryption of the backup increment files.   Unless  that  is  disabled,  an
              observer will not be able to see the file names or contents.

              When  operating  on  Amazon  S3  buckets,  use new-style subdomain bucket addressing. This is now the preferred method to access
              Amazon S3, but is not backwards compatible if your bucket name contains upper-case characters or other characters that  are  not
              valid in a hostname.

       --scp-command command
              Deprecated and ignored. The sftp/scp backend does no longer use an external scp client program.

       --sftp-command command
              Deprecated and ignored. The sftp/scp backend does no longer use an external sftp client program.

       --sign-key key
              This  option  can  be used when backing up, restoring or verifying.  When backing up, all backup files will be signed with keyid
              key.  When restoring, duplicity will signal an error if any remote file is not signed with the given keyid.  key should be an  8
              character  hex  string,  like AA0E73D2.  Should be specified only once because currently only one signing key is supported. Last
              entry overrides all other entries.

              Tells the sftp/scp backend to use FTP_PASSWORD from the environment, or, if that is not present, to  prompt  the  user  for  the
              remote system password. This password is also used for ssh keys that are passphrase-protected.  Without this option the password
              is expected in the url.

       --ssh-options options
              Allows you to pass options to the ssh/scp/sftp backend.  The options list should be  of  the  form  "-oopt1=parm1  -oopt2=parm2"
              where  the  option  string  is  quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. Options must be given in the long option
              format described in ssh_config(5).  The sftp/scp backend currently supports only one  ssh  option,  IdentityFile  like  in  this

              duplicity --ssh-options="-oIdentityFile=/my/backup/id" /home/me sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir

              If  this  option is specified, the names of the files duplicity writes will be shorter (about 30 chars) but less understandable.
              This may be useful when backing up to MacOS or another OS or FS that doesn't support long filenames.

       --tempdir directory
              Use this existing directory for duplicity temporary files instead of the system default, which is usually  the  /tmp  directory.
              This option supersedes any environment variable.

       -ttime, --time time, --restore-time time
              Specify the time from which to restore or list files.

       --time-separator char
              Use char as the time separator in filenames instead of colon (":").

       --timeout seconds
              Use seconds as the socket timeout value if duplicity begins to timeout during network operations.  The default is 30 seconds.

              If  this option is specified, then --use-agent is passed to the GnuPG encryption process and it will try to connect to gpg-agent
              before it asks for a passphrase for --encrypt-key or --sign-key if needed.
              Note: GnuPG 2 and newer ignore this option and will always use a running gpg-agent if no passphrase was delivered.

              If this option is specified, then the sftp/scp backend will use the scp protocol rather than sftp for  backend  operations.  The
              default is to use sftp, because it does not suffer from shell quoting issues like scp.

       --verbosity level, -vlevel
              Specify output verbosity level (log level).  Named levels and corresponding values are 0 Error, 2 Warning, 4 Notice (default), 8
              Info, 9 Debug (noisiest).
              level may also be
              a character: e, w, n, i, d
              a word: error, warning, notice, info, debug

              The options -v4, -vn and -vnotice are functionally equivalent, as are the mixed/upper-case versions -vN, -vNotice and -vNOTICE.

              Print duplicity's version and quit.

       --volsize number
              Change the volume size to number Mb. Default is 25Mb.


              In decreasing order of importance, specifies the directory to use for temporary files (inherited from Python's tempfile module).

              Supported by most backends which are password capable. More secure than setting it in the backend url (which might  be  readable
              in the operating systems process listing to other users on the same machine).

              This passphrase is passed to GnuPG. If this is not set, the user will be prompted for the passphrase.

              The  passphrase  to  be  used  for  --sign-key  ,  if SIGN_PASSPHRASE is not set but PASSPHRASE is set, the latter will be used.
              Otherwise, if no passphrase is available, the user will be prompted for it.


       Duplicity tries to maintain a standard URL format as much as possible.  The generic format for a URL is:


       It is not recommended to expose the password on the command line since it could be revealed to anyone with permissions  to  do  process
       listings,  however,  it  is permitted.  Consider setting the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD instead, which is supported by most, but
       not all backends. Regardless of its name it can be used with other backends.

       In protocols that support it, the path may be preceded by a single slash, '/path', to represent a relative  path  to  the  target  home
       directory, or preceded by a double slash, '//path', to represent an absolute filesystem path.

       Formats of each of the URL schemes follow:





              see also A NOTE ON IMAP

              using rsync daemon

              using rsync over ssh (only key auth)

              see also A NOTE ON EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS

              Ubuntu One
              see also A NOTE ON UBUNTU ONE

              scp://.. or ssh://.. are synonymous with
              see also --use-scp





       duplicity  uses  time strings in two places.  Firstly, many of the files duplicity creates will have the time in their filenames in the
       w3  datetime  format   as   described   in   a   w3   note   at   http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime.    Basically   they   look   like
       "2001-07-15T04:09:38-07:00", which means what it looks like.  The "-07:00" section means the time zone is 7 hours behind UTC.

       Secondly, the -t, --time, and --restore-time options take a time string, which can be given in any of several formats:

       1.     the string "now" (refers to the current time)

       2.     a sequences of digits, like "123456890" (indicating the time in seconds after the epoch)

       3.     A string like "2002-01-25T07:00:00+02:00" in datetime format

       4.     An  interval,  which  is  a number followed by one of the characters s, m, h, D, W, M, or Y (indicating seconds, minutes, hours,
              days, weeks, months, or years respectively), or a series of such pairs.  In this  case  the  string  refers  to  the  time  that
              preceded  the  current  time  by  the length of the interval.  For instance, "1h78m" indicates the time that was one hour and 78
              minutes ago.  The calendar here is unsophisticated: a month is always 30 days, a year is always 365 days, and a  day  is  always
              86400 seconds.

       5.     A  date  format  of the form YYYY/MM/DD, YYYY-MM-DD, MM/DD/YYYY, or MM-DD-YYYY, which indicates midnight on the day in question,
              relative to the current time zone settings.  For instance, "2002/3/5", "03-05-2002", and "2002-3-05" all mean March 5th, 2002.


       duplicity accepts the same file selection options rdiff-backup does, including --exclude, --exclude-filelist-stdin, etc.

       When duplicity is run, it searches through the given source directory and backs up all  the  files  specified  by  the  file  selection
       system.   The  file  selection system comprises a number of file selection conditions, which are set using one of the following command
       line options: --exclude, --exclude-device-files, --exclude-filelist, --exclude-filelist-stdin, --exclude-globbing-filelist,  --exclude-
       regexp,   --include,  --include-filelist,  --include-filelist-stdin,  --include-globbing-filelist,  and  --include-regexp.   Each  file
       selection condition either matches or doesn't match a given file.  A given file is excluded by the file selection system  exactly  when
       the first matching file selection condition specifies that the file be excluded; otherwise the file is included.

       For instance,

              duplicity --include /usr --exclude /usr /usr scp://user@host/backup

       is exactly the same as

              duplicity /usr scp://user@host/backup

       because  the  include  and  exclude  directives  match  exactly  the  same  files, and the --include comes first, giving it precedence.

              duplicity --include /usr/local/bin --exclude /usr/local /usr scp://user@host/backup

       would backup the /usr/local/bin directory (and its contents), but not /usr/local/doc.

       The include, exclude, include-globbing-filelist, and exclude-globbing-filelist options accept extended shell globbing patterns.   These
       patterns can contain the special patterns *, **, ?, and [...].  As in a normal shell, * can be expanded to any string of characters not
       containing "/", ?  expands to any character except "/", and [...]  expands to a single character of those characters specified  (ranges
       are acceptable).  The new special pattern, **, expands to any string of characters whether or not it contains "/".  Furthermore, if the
       pattern starts with "ignorecase:" (case insensitive), then this prefix will be removed and any character in the string can be  replaced
       with an upper- or lowercase version of itself.

       Remember  that  you  may  need  to  quote  these characters when typing them into a shell, so the shell does not interpret the globbing
       patterns before duplicity sees them.

       The --exclude pattern option matches a file iff:

       1.     pattern can be expanded into the file's filename, or

       2.     the file is inside a directory matched by the option.

       Conversely, --include pattern matches a file iff:

       1.     pattern can be expanded into the file's filename,

       2.     the file is inside a directory matched by the option, or

       3.     the file is a directory which contains a file matched by the option.

       For example,

              --exclude /usr/local

       matches /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape.  It is the same as --exclude /usr/local --exclude '/usr/local/**'.

              --include /usr/local

       specifies that /usr, /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape (but not /usr/doc) all be backed up.  Thus you don't  have
       to worry about including parent directories to make sure that included subdirectories have somewhere to go.  Finally,

              --include ignorecase:'/usr/[a-z0-9]foo/*/**.py'

       would  match  a file like /usR/5fOO/hello/there/world.py.  If it did match anything, it would also match /usr.  If there is no existing
       file that the given pattern can be expanded into, the option will not match /usr.

       The  --include-filelist,  --exclude-filelist,  --include-filelist-stdin,  and  --exclude-filelist-stdin  options  also  introduce  file
       selection  conditions.   They direct duplicity to read in a file, each line of which is a file specification, and to include or exclude
       the matching files.  Lines are separated by newlines or nulls, depending on whether the --null-separator switch was given.   Each  line
       in a filelist is interpreted similarly to the way extended shell patterns are, with a few exceptions:

       1.     Globbing patterns like *, **, ?, and [...]  are not expanded.

       2.     Include  patterns  do  not  match  files  in  a  directory  that  is  included.  So /usr/local in an include file will not match

       3.     Lines starting with "+ " are interpreted as include directives, even if found in a filelist  referenced  by  --exclude-filelist.
              Similarly, lines starting with "- " exclude files even if they are found within an include filelist.

       For example, if file "list.txt" contains the lines:

              - /usr/local/doc
              + /var
              - /var

       then   "--include-filelist   list.txt"   would  include  /usr,  /usr/local,  and  /usr/local/bin.   It  would  exclude  /usr/local/doc,
       /usr/local/doc/python, etc.  It neither excludes nor  includes  /usr/local/man,  leaving  the  fate  of  this  directory  to  the  next
       specification  condition.   Finally,  it  is  undefined what happens with /var.  A single file list should not contain conflicting file

       The --include-globbing-filelist and --exclude-globbing-filelist options also specify filelists, but each line in the filelist  will  be
       interpreted  as  a  globbing pattern the way --include and --exclude options are interpreted (although "+ " and "- " prefixing is still
       allowed).  For instance, if the file "globbing-list.txt" contains the lines:

              + dir/bar
              - **

       Then "--include-globbing-filelist globbing-list.txt" would be exactly the same  as  specifying  "--include  dir/foo  --include  dir/bar
       --exclude **" on the command line.

       Finally,  the  --include-regexp  and --exclude-regexp allow files to be included and excluded if their filenames match a python regular
       expression.  Regular expression syntax is too complicated to explain here, but is covered in Python's library  reference.   Unlike  the
       --include  and  --exclude  options,  the regular expression options don't match files containing or contained in matched files.  So for

              --include '[0-9]{7}(?!foo)'

       matches any files whose full pathnames contain 7 consecutive digits which aren't followed by 'foo'.  However, it wouldn't  match  /home
       even if /home/ben/1234567 existed.


       Amazon  S3  provides  the  ability  to choose the location of a bucket upon its creation. The purpose is to enable the user to choose a
       location which is better located network topologically relative to the user, because it may allow for faster data transfers.

       duplicity will create a new bucket the first time a bucket access is attempted. At this point, the bucket will be created in Europe  if
       --s3-european-buckets  was  given.  For  reasons  having  to do with how the Amazon S3 service works, this also requires the use of the
       --s3-use-new-style option. This option turns on subdomain based bucket addressing in S3. The details are beyond the scope of  this  man
       page, but it is important to know that your bucket must not contain upper case letters or any other characters that are not valid parts
       of a hostname. Consequently, for reasons of backwards compatibility, use of  subdomain  based  bucket  addressing  is  not  enabled  by

       Note that you will need to use --s3-use-new-style for all operations on European buckets; not just upon initial creation.

       You only need to use --s3-european-buckets upon initial creation, but you may may use it at all times for consistency.

       Further  note  that when creating a new European bucket, it can take a while before the bucket is fully accessible. At the time of this
       writing it is unclear to what extent this is an expected feature of Amazon S3, but in practice  you  may  experience  timeouts,  socket
       errors  or  HTTP  errors when trying to upload files to your newly created bucket. Give it a few minutes and the bucket should function


       An IMAP account can be used as a target for the upload.  The userid may be specified and the password will be requested.

       The from_address_prefix may be specified (and probably should be). The text will be used as the "From"  address  in  the  IMAP  server.
       Then on a restore (or list) command the from_address_prefix will distinguish between different backups.


       Connecting to Ubuntu One requires that you be running duplicity inside of an X session so that you can be prompted for your credentials
       if necessary by the Ubuntu One session daemon.

       See https://one.ubuntu.com/ for more information about Ubuntu One.


       Signing and symmetrically encrypt at the same time with the gpg binary on the command line, as used within duplicity, is a specifically
       challenging issue.  Tests showed that the following combinations proved working.

       1. Setup gpg-agent properly. Use the option --use-agent and enter both passphrases (symmetric and sign key) in the gpg-agent's dialog.

       2. Use a PASSPHRASE for symmetric encryption of your choice but the signing key has an empty passphrase.

       3. The used PASSPHRASE for symmetric encryption and the passphrase of the signing key are identical.


       Hard links currently unsupported (they will be treated as non-linked regular files).

       Bad signatures will be treated as empty instead of logging appropriate error message.


       This  section  describes duplicity's basic operation and the format of its data files.  It should not necessary to read this section to
       use duplicity.

       The files used by duplicity to store backup data are tarfiles in GNU tar format.  They can be produced  independently  by  rdiffdir(1).
       For  incremental  backups, new files are saved normally in the tarfile.  But when a file changes, instead of storing a complete copy of
       the file, only a diff is stored, as generated by rdiff(1).  If a file is deleted, a 0 length file is stored in the tar.  It is possible
       to  restore  a  duplicity  archive  "manually" by using tar and then cp, rdiff, and rm as necessary.  These duplicity archives have the
       extension difftar.

       Both full and incremental backup sets have the same format.  In effect, a full backup set is an incremental one generated from an empty
       signature  (see  below).  The files in full backup sets will start with duplicity-full while the incremental sets start with duplicity-
       inc.  When restoring, duplicity applies patches in order, so deleting, for instance, a full backup set  may  make  related  incremental
       backup sets unusable.

       In  order  to determine which files have been deleted, and to calculate diffs for changed files, duplicity needs to process information
       about previous sessions.  It stores this information in the form of tarfiles  where  each  entry's  data  contains  the  signature  (as
       produced by rdiff) of the file instead of the file's contents.  These signature sets have the extension sigtar.

       Signature  files  are not required to restore a backup set, but without an up-to-date signature, duplicity cannot append an incremental
       backup to an existing archive.

       To save bandwidth, duplicity generates full signature sets and incremental signature sets.  A full signature set is generated for  each
       full  backup,  and  an  incremental  one  for  each  incremental backup.  These start with duplicity-full-signatures and duplicity-new-
       signatures respectively. These signatures will be stored both locally and  remotely.   The  remote  signatures  will  be  encrypted  if
       encryption is enabled.  The local signatures will not be encrypted and stored in the archive dir (see --archive-dir ).


       Original Author - Ben Escoto <bescoto@stanford.edu>

       Current Maintainer - Kenneth Loafman <kenneth@loafman.com>


       rdiffdir(1), python(1), rdiff(1), rdiff-backup(1).

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