DD(1) User Commands DD(1)
dd - convert and copy a file
dd [OPERAND]... dd OPTION
Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands. bs=BYTES read and write up to BYTES bytes at a time cbs=BYTES convert BYTES bytes at a time conv=CONVS convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list count=BLOCKS copy only BLOCKS input blocks ibs=BYTES read up to BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512) if=FILE read from FILE instead of stdin iflag=FLAGS read as per the comma separated symbol list obs=BYTES write BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512) of=FILE write to FILE instead of stdout oflag=FLAGS write as per the comma separated symbol list seek=BLOCKS skip BLOCKS obs-sized blocks at start of output skip=BLOCKS skip BLOCKS ibs-sized blocks at start of input status=noxfer suppress transfer statistics BLOCKS and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes: c =1, w =2, b =512, kB =1000, K =1024, MB =1000*1000, M =1024*1024, xM =M GB =1000*1000*1000, G =1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y. Each CONV symbol may be: ascii from EBCDIC to ASCII ebcdic from ASCII to EBCDIC ibm from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC block pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size unblock replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline lcase change upper case to lower case ucase change lower case to upper case swab swap every pair of input bytes sync pad every input block with NULs to ibs-size; when used with block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs excl fail if the output file already exists nocreat do not create the output file notrunc do not truncate the output file noerror continue after read errors fdatasync physically write output file data before finishing fsync likewise, but also write metadata Each FLAG symbol may be: append append mode (makes sense only for output; conv=notrunc suggested) direct use direct I/O for data directory fail unless a directory dsync use synchronized I/O for data sync likewise, but also for metadata fullblock accumulate full blocks of input (iflag only) nonblock use non-blocking I/O noatime do not update access time nocache discard cached data noctty do not assign controlling terminal from file nofollow do not follow symlinks Sending a USR1 signal to a running `dd' process makes it print I/O statistics to standard error and then resume copying. $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$! $ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid 18335302+0 records in 18335302+0 records out 9387674624 bytes (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s Options are: --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit
Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.
Report dd bugs to email@example.com GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/> General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/> Report dd translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
The full documentation for dd is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and dd programs are properly installed at your site, the command info coreutils 'dd invocation' should give you access to the complete manual.
We are proudly powered by Open Source software - linux+ngnix+bash+vim+python!