curl(1)                                                           Curl Manual                                                          curl(1)

NAME

       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS

       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION

       curl  is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,
       IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to  work  without
       user interaction.

       curl  offers  a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authentication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file
       transfer resume and more. As you will see below, the number of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See libcurl(3) for details.

URL

       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed description in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to guess what protocol you might want. It will then  default  to  HTTP
       but  try  other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes. For example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you
       want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not trying to validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any  means
       but is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       Curl  will  attempt  to  re-use  connections  for  multiple file transfers, so that getting many files from the same server will not do
       multiple connects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on files specified on a single command line and cannot
       be used between separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER

       curl  normally  displays  a  progress meter during operations, indicating the amount of transferred data, transfer speeds and estimated
       time left, etc.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl to do an operation and it is  about  to  write  data  to  the
       terminal, it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If  you  want  a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to redirect the response output to a file, using shell redirect
       (>), -o [file] or similar.

       It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your friend.

OPTIONS

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again disabled with --no-option. That is,  you  use  the  exact  same
       option  name  but  prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and show the --option version of them. (This concept
       with --no options was added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were toggled on/off on repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display progress information as a progress bar instead of the

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead of using its internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1 when negotiating with a remote TLS server.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -4, --ipv4
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP versions (which it is if it is  IPv6-capable),  this  option  tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6, --ipv6
              If  libcurl  is  capable  of resolving an address to multiple IP versions (which it is if it is IPv6-capable), this option tells
              libcurl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.  default statistics.

       -a, --append
              (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append to the target file instead  of  overwriting  it.  If  the  file
              doesn't exist, it will be created.  Note that this flag is ignored by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP)  Specify  the  User-Agent  string  to  send  to  the  HTTP  server.  Some badly done CGIs fail if this field isn't set to
              "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string, surround the string with single quote marks. This can also be set  with  the  -H,
              --header option of course.

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the one that's used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP)  Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself, and use the most secure one the remote site claims to support.
              This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
              This  is  used  instead  of  setting  a  specific  authentication  method,  which you can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
              --negotiate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice  and  then
              the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP)  Pass  the  data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is supposedly the data previously received from the server in a "Set-
              Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a filename to use to read previously  stored  cookie  lines  from,  which
              should  be  used in this session if they match. Using this method also activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl record
              incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in combination with the -L, --location option. The file format  of
              the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE  that  the file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as input. No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,
              use the -c, --cookie-jar option or you could even save the HTTP headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the one that's used.

       -B, --use-ascii
              Enable ASCII transfer when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP, this can also be enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A".  This
              option causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

       --basic
              (HTTP)  Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the default and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it
              to override a previously set option that sets a different authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or --negotiate).

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
              Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies after a completed operation. Curl writes all  cookies  previously  read
              from  a  specified file as well as all cookies received from remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be written.
              The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file format. If you set the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will
              be written to stdout.

              This  command  line option will activate the cookie engine that makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
              to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl operation won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using  -v
              will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the last specified file name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file  transfer  at  the  given  offset. The given offset is the exact number of bytes that will be
              skipped, counting from the beginning of the source file before it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads,  the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to resume the transfer. It then uses the given output/input files to
              figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list of ciphers must specify valid ciphers. Read up  on  SSL  cipher
              list details on this URL: http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS  ciphers  are  done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS. The full list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at this
              URL: http://directory.fedora.redhat.com/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will override the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms libcurl supports, and save the uncompressed document.  If  this
              option is used and the server sends an unsupported encoding, curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in seconds that you allow the connection to the server to take.  This only limits the connection phase, once curl
              has connected this option is of no more use. See also the -m, --max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create the necessary local directory hierarchy  as  needed.  This  option
              creates  the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else. If the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
              exist, no dir will be created.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
              (HTTPS/FTPS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that  are  to
              be considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP server, in the same way that a browser does when a user has filled
              in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will cause curl to pass the  data  to  the  server  using  the  content-type
              application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              -d,  --data  is  the  same as --data-ascii. To post data purely binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-
              encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same command line, the data pieces specified will be merged together  with
              a   separating   &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d  skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk  that  looks  like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl to read the
              data  from stdin.  The contents of the file must already be URL-encoded. Multiple files can also be specified. Posting data from
              a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data @foobar.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This option is handy to use when you want to store the headers that a HTTP site sends to you. Cookies  from  the  headers  could
              then  be  read in a second curl invocation by using the -b, --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however a better way
              to store cookies.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered being "headers" and thus are saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.  IP "--data-ascii <data>" See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra processing whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a filename.  Data is posted in  a  similar  manner  as  --data-ascii
              does, except that newlines are preserved and conversions are never done.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the first will append data as described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP)  This  posts  data,  similar  to  the  other --data options with the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in
              7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name followed by a separator and a content  specification.  The  <data>
              part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. Just be careful so that the content doesn't contain any = or
                     @ symbols, as that will then make the syntax match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass that on. Note that the name part is expected to  be  URL-encoded
                     already.

              @filename
                     This  will  make  curl load data from the given file (including any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it on in the
                     POST.

              name@filename
                     This will make curl load data from the given file (including any newlines), URL-encode that data and pass it  on  in  the
                     POST.  The  name  part  gets  an  equal  sign  appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name is
                     expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in the Kerberos service  ticket,  which  is  a  matter  of  realm
                     policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is a authentication that prevents the password from being sent over the wire in
              clear text. Use this in combination with the normal -u,  --user  option  to  set  user  name  and  password.  See  also  --ntlm,
              --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP)  Tell  curl  to  disable  the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always
              first attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this option, it will use PORT right away.  EPRT  and  LPRT  are
              extensions  to  the  original  FTP protocol, and may not work on all servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way
              than the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt is an alias for --disable-eprt.

              Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to switch to passive mode you need to not  use  -P,  --ftp-port  or
              force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when doing passive FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first attempt
              to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will not try using EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-epsv is an alias for --disable-epsv.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server. This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
              used  with  -L,  --location  you can append ";auto" to the --referer URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it
              follows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file when  getting  a  file  with  HTTPS,  FTPS  or  another  SSL-based
              protocol.  The  certificate  must  be  in  PEM  format.  If the optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the
              terminal. Note that this option assumes a "certificate" file that is the private key and the private  certificate  concatenated!
              See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

              If  curl  is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option can tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within the
              NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR  (or  by  default  /etc/pki/nssdb).  If  the  NSS  PEM  PKCS#11  module
              (libnsspem.so)  is  available then PEM files may be loaded. If you want to use a file from the current directory, please precede
              it with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations. Use --engine  list  to  print  a  list  of  build-time  supported
              engines. Note that not all (or none) of the engines may be available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC  OS  ONLY)  Sets  a  range of environment variables, using the names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of
              useful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket. The socket is  used  to  seed  the  random  engine  for  SSL
              connections. See also the --random-file option.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,
              PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify the peer. The file may contain multiple  CA  certificates.  The
              certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
              alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if it is set, and uses the given path as a path  to  a  CA  cert
              bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look for a CA certs file named ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´, either in the same directory
              as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any folder along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option tells curl the nickname of the CA certificate to  use  within  the
              NSS  database  defined  by  the  environment  variable  SSL_DIR  (or  by default /etc/pki/nssdb).  If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module
              (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory to verify the peer. The certificates must be in PEM format,  and  if
              curl  is  built  against OpenSSL, the directory must have been processed using the c_rehash utility supplied with OpenSSL. Using
              --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to make SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the  --cacert  file
              contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP)  Fail  silently (no output at all) on server errors. This is mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal with
              failed attempts. In normal cases when a HTTP server fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating  so  (which
              often also describes why and more). This flag will prevent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

              This  method  is  not  fail-safe  and there are occasions where non-successful response codes will slip through, especially when
              authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user has pressed the submit button. This  causes  curl  to  POST  data
              using  the  Content-Type  multipart/form-data  according  to  RFC 2388. This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the
              'content' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name
              with  the  symbol <. The difference between @ and < is then that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a file upload, while
              the < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text field from a file.

              Example, to send your password file to the server, where 'password' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd  will  be
              the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the filename. This goes for both @ and < constructs.

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=', in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a file upload part by setting filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name and password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
              ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will override the previous use.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails, send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's  Secure
              Transport  server over FTPS using a client certificate, using "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the username from the
              certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't currently exist on the server, the  standard  behavior  of
              curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP) Control what method curl should use to reach a file on a FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the following
              alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very many commands.
                     This is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl  does  no  CWD  at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc and give a full path to the server for all these commands.
                     This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then operates on the file "normally" (like in  the  multicwd  case).
                     This is somewhat more standards compliant than 'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the internal default behavior, but using this option can be used to
              override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference. Undoing an  enforced  passive  really  isn't
              doable but you must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in its response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
              connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address it already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV). Certain FTP servers, mainly  drftpd,  require  this  non-standard
              command for directory listings as well as up and downloads in PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command  Channel)  Shuts  down  the SSL/TLS layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel
              communication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to follow the FTP transaction.  The  default  mode  is  passive.  See
              --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP)  Use  CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will not initiate the shutdown, but instead wait for
              the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for  a
              reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.  Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted data transfers for
              efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be  used  but  will  be
              removed in a future version.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value string for the named parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and '<' characters,
              and the ';type=' string in the value have no special meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any  possibility  that
              the string value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of --form.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
              without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they  should
              be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
              When used, this option will make all data specified with -d, --data or --data-binary to be used in a HTTP GET request instead of
              the POST request that otherwise would be used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If used in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference. This is because undoing a GET  doesn't  make
              sense, but you should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
              (HTTP)  Extra  header to use when getting a web page. You may specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add a
              custom header that has the same name as one of the internal ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used instead
              of  the internal one. This allows you to make even trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not replace internally
              set headers without knowing perfectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a replacement without  content
              on the right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:".

              curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as
              a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

              This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's  public  key,
              curl  will  refuse the connection with the host unless the md5sums match. This option is only for SCP and SFTP transfers. (Added
              in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP) Ignore the Content-Length header. This is particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report incorrect
              Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

       -i, --include
              (HTTP)  Include  the  HTTP-header  in  the output. The HTTP-header includes things like server-name, date of the document, HTTP-
              version and more...

       -I, --head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the  header
              of a document. When used on a FTP or FILE file, curl displays the file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
              Perform  an  operation using a specified interface. You can enter interface name, IP address or host name. An example could look
              like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this option will make it discard all "session  cookies".  This  will
              basically  have  the  same  effect  as if a new session is started. Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they're
              closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to  use  the  server-specified  Content-Disposition  filename  instead  of
              extracting a filename from the URL.

       -k, --insecure
              (SSL)  This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
              to be made secure by using the CA certificate bundle installed by default. This makes all connections considered "insecure" fail
              unless -k, --insecure is used.

              See this online resource for further details: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
              Specify  which  config  file  to read curl arguments from. The config file is a text file in which command line arguments can be
              written which then will be used as if they were written on the actual  command  line.  Options  and  their  parameters  must  be
              specified on the same config file line, separated by whitespace, colon, the equals sign or any combination thereof (however, the
              preferred separator is the equals sign). If the parameter is to contain  whitespace,  the  parameter  must  be  enclosed  within
              quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any
              other letter is ignored. If the first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line  will  be  treated  as  a
              comment. Only write one option per physical line in the config file.

              Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the file from stdin.

              Note  that  to  be  able  to  specify a URL in the config file, you need to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply
              writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              Long option names can optionally be given in the config file without the initial double dashes.

              When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a default config file and uses it if found.  The  default  config
              file is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1)  curl  tries to find the "home dir": It first checks for the CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
              it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which returns the home dir given the current user in your system). On Windows, it  then
              checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USERPROFILE%\Application Data'.

              2)  On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
              UNIX-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle before sending keepalive probes  and  the  time  between  individual
              keepalive  probes.  It  is  currently  effective on operating systems offering the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options
              (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence sets the amount.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your private key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key provided private key is. DER, PEM, and  ENG  are  supported.  If  not
              specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
              'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these, 'private' will instead be used.

              This option requires a library built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI  (GSS-Negotiate)  support.  This  is  not  very  common.  Use  -V,
              --version to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP)  When  listing  an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-only view.  Especially useful if you want to machine-parse the
              contents of an FTP directory since the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format.

              This option causes an FTP NLST command to be sent.  Some FTP servers list only files in their response  to  NLST;  they  do  not
              include subdirectories and symbolic links.

       -L, --location
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If the server reports that the requested page has moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
              and a 3XX response code), this option will make curl redo the request on the new place. If used together with -i,  --include  or
              -I,  --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials to the
              initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different  host,  it  won't  be  able  to  intercept  the  user+password.  See  also
              --location-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with
              a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response code was any other 3xx code, curl will  re-send  the  following
              request using the same unmodified method.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will get a libcurl-using source code written to the file that does
              the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

              NOTE: this does not properly support -F and the sending of multipart formposts, so in those cases the  output  program  will  be
              missing necessary calls to curl_formadd(3), and possibly more.

              If this option is used several times, the last given file name will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify  the  maximum  transfer rate you want curl to use. This feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your
              transfer not to use your entire bandwidth.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is appended.  Appending  'k'  or  'K'  will  count  the  number  as
              kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The  given  rate is the average speed counted during the entire transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in
              short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

              If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly,  to
              help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set  a  preferred  number  or  range of local port numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by nature are a
              scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range to something too  narrow  might  cause  unnecessary  connection
              setup failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  Like  -L,  --location, but will allow sending the name + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This
              may or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to a site to which you'll  send  your  authentication  info
              (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Maximum  time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hanging
              for hours due to slow networks or links going down.  See also the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent from.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the file requested is larger than this value,  the  transfer  will
              not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE:  The  file  size  is  not  always  known  prior to download, and for such files this option has no effect even if the file
              transfer ends up being larger than this given limit. This concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent to. This option can be used multiple times to  specify  many
              recipients.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-redirs <num>
              Set  maximum  number  of redirection-followings allowed. If -L, --location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from
              following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is set to 50  redirections.  Set  this  option  to  -1  to  make  it
              limitless.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl scan the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's home directory for login name and password. This is typically
              used for FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will enable user authentication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details  on  the  file
              format.  Curl  will  not  complain  if  that  file  doesn't have the right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-
              readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl to FTP to the  machine  host.domain.com  with  user  name
              'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables  the  buffering  of  the output stream. In normal work situations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that
              will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not necessarily exactly when the data arrives.  Using  this  option
              will disable that buffering.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

       --netrc-file
              This  option  is  similar to --netrc, except that you provide the path (absolute or relative) to the netrc file that Curl should
              use.  You can only specify one netrc file per invocation. If several --netrc-file options are provided, only the last  one  will
              be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

              This option overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually exclusive.  It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.

       --netrc-optional
              Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.

       --negotiate
              (HTTP)  Enables  GSS-Negotiate  authentication.  The  GSS-Negotiate  method  was  designed by Microsoft and is used in their web
              applications. It is primarily meant as a support  for  Kerberos5  authentication  but  may  be  also  used  along  with  another
              authentication method. For more information see IETF draft draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

              If you want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-negotiate.

              This  option  requires  a  library  built with GSSAPI support. This is not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your version
              supports GSS-Negotiate.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user option to activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a
              '-u :' is enough as the user name and password from the -u option aren't actually used.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as by default curl enables them.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL)  Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing
              should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs, there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the  wild  that  may
              require you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0)

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated  list  of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is specified.  The only wildcard is a single * character, which
              matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which  contains  the
              hostname,  or  the  hostname  itself.  For  example,  local.com  would match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not
              www.notlocal.com.  (Added in 7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.  It
              is  a  proprietary  protocol,  reverse-engineered  by clever people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
              behavior should not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented authentication
              method instead, such as Digest.

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write  output  to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
              number in the <file> specifier. That variable will be replaced with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

              See also the --create-dirs option to create the local directories dynamically. Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash) will
              force the output to be done to stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get. (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
              off.)

              The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing else.

              Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working directory. If you want the file saved in a  different  directory,
              make sure you change current working directory before you invoke curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When  an  HTTP  proxy  is  used  (-x, --proxy), this option will cause non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through the proxy
              instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tunnel approach is made with  the  HTTP  proxy  CONNECT  request  and
              requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number curl wants to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP)  Reverses  the  default  initiator/listener  roles  when  connecting  with FTP. This switch makes curl use active mode. In
              practice, curl then tells the server to connect back to the client's specified address and port, while  passive  mode  asks  the
              server to setup an IP address and port for it to connect to. <address> should be one of:

              interface
                     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control connection

       If  this  option  is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use
       the EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++.

       Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address, to tell curl what TCP port range to  use.  That  means
       you  specify  a  port  range, from a lower to a higher number. A single number works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of
       failure since the port may not be available.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The non-
              RFC  behaviour  is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in
              7.17.1)

       --post302
              Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The non-
              RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However,  a  server
              may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in
              7.19.1)

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells curl to use the listed protocols for its initial retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left to right,  are  comma  separated,
              and are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permitted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted.

              =  Permit  only  this protocol (ignoring the list already permitted), though subject to later modification by subsequent entries
                 in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts  to  safely  rely  on  being  able  to  disable  potentially  dangerous
              protocols, without relying upon support for that protocol being built into curl to avoid an error.

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
              the option.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells curl to use the listed protocols after a redirect. See --proto for how protocols are represented.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when  communicating  with  the  given  proxy.  This  might  cause  an  extra
              request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
              remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl uses with proxies.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
              a remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Negotiate  authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP
              Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with  a  remote
              host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x, --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will
              specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc config file will not be read and used. See the -K,  --config  for
              details on the default config file search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP)  Send  an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
              (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be exact). To make commands take place after a  successful  transfer,
              prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make commands be sent after libcurl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
              command(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is only supported for FTP). You may specify  any  number  of  commands.  If  the
              server  returns  failure  for one of the commands, the entire operation will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP
              commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to  SFTP  servers.   This  option  can  be  used
              multiple  times.  When  speaking  to  a FTP server, prefix the command with an asterisk (*) to make libcurl continue even if the
              command fails as by default curl will stop at first failure.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, libcurl interprets SFTP quote commands itself before  sending  them  to  the  server.
              File  names  may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special characters.  Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote
              commands:

              chgrp group file
                     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to the group ID specified by the group operand.
                     The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode number.

              chown user file
                     The  chown command sets the owner of the file named by the file operand to the user ID specified by the user operand. The
                     user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the target_file location pointing to the source_file location.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand.

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the current working directory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by the source operand to the destination path named by the  target
                     operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file operand.

              rmdir directory
                     The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE)  Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial document) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges
              can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a  non-digit  character  is
       given in the range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the server's configuration.

       You  should  also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you'll
       instead get the whole document.

       FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop' syntax (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP use  depends
       on the extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R, --remote-time
              When  used,  this  will  make  libcurl attempt to figure out the timestamp of the remote file, and if that is available make the
              local file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be considered as random data. The data  is  used  to  seed  the  random
              engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       --raw  When  used,  it disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on unaltered,
              raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
              you  want  to  disable  that  for a specific URL after --remote-name-all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.
              (Added in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
              Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair. Using this, you can  make  the  curl  requests(s)  use  a  specified
              address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on
              the command line. The port number should be the number used for the specific protocol the host will be used for.  It  means  you
              need several entries if you want to provide address for the same host but different ports.

              This option can be used many times to add many host names to resolve.

              (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
              If  a  transient  error  is returned when curl tries to perform a transfer, it will retry this number of times before giving up.
              Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the default). Transient error means either: a  timeout,  an  FTP  4xx
              response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

              When  curl  is  about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one second and then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
              waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the delay between the rest of the retries.  By  using  --retry-delay
              you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries. (Added in
              7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence decide the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the  default
              backoff  time  algorithm  between  retries). This option is only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to zero
              will make curl use the default backoff time.  (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence determines the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt. Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as  long  as  the  timer
              hasn't  reached  this  given  limit.  Notice  that  if  the  timer  hasn't reached the limit, the request will be made and while
              performing, it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a single request´s maximum time, use -m,  --max-time.   Set
              this option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence determines the amount.

       -s, --silent
              Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter or error messages.  Makes Curl mute.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails.

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support
              SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for different levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0). That option name can still be used  but  will  be  removed  in  a
              future version.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP,  POP3,  IMAP,  SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Terminates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.
              (Added in 7.20.0)

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in 7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be removed in  a
              future version.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this  option  is  superfluous  since  you can specify a socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol
              prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy with -x,  --proxy  using  a  socks4a://  protocol
              prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use  the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname proxy  with  -x,  --proxy  using  a  socks5h://
              protocol prefix.

              If  this  option  is  used  several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as
              --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name locally. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed  at  port
              1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this  option  is  superfluous  since  you can specify a socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol
              prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously  wrongly  documented  and  used  as
              --socks without the number appended.)

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn. This option allows you to change it.

              Examples:  --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service  sockd  would use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
              service sockd/real-name would use sockd/real-name for cases where the proxy-name does not match the principal name.   (Added  in
              7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As  part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is negotiated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but
              the NEC reference implementation does not.  The option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected  exchange  of  the  protection
              mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect  all  writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.
              This option has no point when you're using a shell with decent redirecting capabilities.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will  append  the
              local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or
              curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file name to use. That will most likely cause the  upload  operation
              to fail. If this is used on a HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be used.

              Use  the  file  name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a given file.  Alternately, the file name "." (a single period)
              may be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking mode to allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded.

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T + URL pair specifies what to upload and  to  where.  curl  also
              supports  "globbing"  of  the  -T  argument,  meaning  that  you can upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL
              globbing style supported in the URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block size that curl will try to use when  transferring  data  to  or
              from a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
              Set  TLS  authentication  type.  Currently,  the  only  supported  option  is  "SRP",  for  TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and
              --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option defaults to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsuser <user>
              Set username for use with the TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also  be  set.
              (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
              Set  password  for  use  with  the  TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.
              (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one of the algorithms libcurl supports,  and  uncompress  the  data
              while receiving it.

              (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive information, to the given  output  file.  Use
              "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This  is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
              that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for server authentication. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you just give the user name (without entering a colon) curl will prompt for a password.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication, you can force curl to pick up the user name and password from
              your environment by simply specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentication.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication, you can force curl to pick up the user name and password from
              your environment by simply specifying a single colon with this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times. To control where this URL is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-name
              options.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes  the  fetching  more  verbose/talkative. Mostly useful for debugging. A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by
              curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting  with  '*'  means  additional
              info provided by curl.

              Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might be the option you're looking for.

              If you think this option still doesn't give you enough details, consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and successful operation. The format is a string that may contain plain text
              mixed with any number of variables. The string can be specified as "string", to get read from a particular file you  specify  it
              "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from stdin you write "@-".

              The  variables  present  in the output format will be substituted by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below.
              All variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
              using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE:  The  %-symbol  is  a  special symbol in the win32-environment, where all occurrences of % must be doubled when using this
              option.

              The variables available at this point are:

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most meaningful if you've told curl to follow location: headers.

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer. In 7.18.2 the  alias
                             response_code was added to show the same info.

              http_connect   The  numerical  code  that  was  found  in  the last response (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request. (Added in
                             7.12.4)

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the  full  operation  lasted.  The  time  will  be  displayed  with  millisecond
                             resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name resolving was completed.

              time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was completed.

              time_appconnect
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took  from the start until the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote host was
                             completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer was just about to begin. This  includes  all
                             pre-transfer commands and negotiations that are specific to the particular protocol(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The  time,  in  seconds, it took for all redirection steps include name lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer
                             before the final  transaction  was  started.  time_redirect  shows  the  complete  execution  time  for  multiple
                             redirections. (Added in 7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the first byte was just about to be transferred. This includes
                             time_pretransfer and also the time the server needed to calculate the result.

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for the complete download. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload. Bytes per second.

              content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any.

              num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent transfer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When a HTTP request was made without -L to follow redirects, this variable will show the actual  URL  a  redirect
                             would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              ftp_entry_path The initial path libcurl ended up in when logging on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              ssl_verify_result
                             The  result of the SSL peer certificate verification that was requested. 0 means the verification was successful.
                             (Added in 7.19.0)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user@password]proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables that set the proxy to use. If there's an  environment  variable  setting  a
              proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All  operations  that  are  performed  over a HTTP proxy will transparently be converted to HTTP. It means that certain protocol
              specific operations might not be available. This is not the case if you can tunnel through  the  proxy,  as  one  with  the  -p,
              --proxytunnel option.

              The  proxy  host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy environment variables, including the protocol prefix (http://)
              and the embedded user + password.

              From 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols. Use  socks4://,
              socks4a://,  socks5://  or  socks5h://  to request the specific SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all
              others will be treated as HTTP proxies.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicating with the HTTP server.  The specified  request  will  be  used
              instead  of  the  method  otherwise  used (which defaults to GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explanations.
              Common additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE, but related technologies like WebDAV offers  PROPFIND,  COPY,  MOVE  and
              more.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when doing file lists with FTP.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -y, --speed-time <time>
              If  a  download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time
              is used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

              This option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow connects etc. If this is a concern  for  you,  try  the  --connect-
              timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If  a  download  is slower than this given speed (in bytes per second) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set
              with -y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z, --time-cond <date expression>
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Request a file that has been modified later than the given time and date, or one that has been  modified  before
              that  time.  The  date expression can be all sorts of date strings or if it doesn't match any internal ones, it tries to get the
              time from a given file name instead! See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for a document that is older than the given date/time, default is a
              document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
              Usage help.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols that libcurl reports to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP is supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables more error-tracking and memory debugging etc. For curl-developers
                     only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              SSPI   SSPI is supported. If you use NTLM and set a blank user name, curl will authenticate with your current user and password.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported for TLS.

FILES

       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT

       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case. The  lower  case  version  has  precedence.  http_proxy  is  an
       exception as it is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same effect as using the --proxy option.

       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the protocol is a protocol that curl supports and as specified in a URL.
              FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set to a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES

       Since curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string doesn't match a supported one, the proxy will be  treated  as  a  HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES

       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At the time of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired request was not enabled or was explicitly disabled at build-time.  To
              make curl able to do this, you probably need another build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP  access  denied.  The server denied login or denied access to the particular resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
              often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't exist on the server.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the 227-line.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or returned another error with the HTTP error code being 400 or  above.
              This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation, used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers support the PORT command, try doing a transfer using PASV instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command is used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maximum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl and
              rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here is considered an error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA certificates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not accepted and curl failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format (added in 7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The existing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW

       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP

       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO

       ftp(1), wget(1)
 

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